English - Cleave

to split or divide by a cutting blow, to penetrate or pass through

Hebrew - chaloph

exchange, pass away, vanishing, change, knife

In the Qal the usage of the verb is illustrated by Judges 5:26. Jael pierced through Sisera's temples (cf. Job 20:24). Whirlwinds, conquerors, ghosts pass through or by (Isa 21:1; 8:8; Job 4:15).

OT:2475 chalowph (khal-ofe'); from OT:2498; properly, surviving; by implication (collectively) orphans:
KJV - destruction.

OT:2487 chaliyphah (khal-ee-faw'); from OT:2498; alternation:
KJV - change, course.

OT:2498 chalaph (khaw-laf'); a primitive root; properly, to slide by, i.e. (by implication) to hasten away, pass on, spring up, pierce or change:
KJV - abolish, alter, change, cut off, go on forward, grow up, be over, pass (away, on, through), renew, sprout, strike through.

OT:2499   chalaph (Aramaic) (khal-af'); corresponding to OT:2498; to pass on (of time):
KJV - pass.

OT:2500   cheleph (klay'-lef); from OT:2498; properly, exchange; hence (as preposition) instead of:
KJV - for.



-verb (used without object), cleaved or Archaic clave; cleaved; cleaving.

1. to adhere closely; stick; cling (usually followed by to ).

2. to remain faithful (usually followed by to ): to cleave to one's principles in spite of persecution.

before 900; Middle English cleven, Old English cleofian, cognate with Old High German kleben ( German kleben), Old Norse kljufa; akin to Greek glýphein to carve, Latin glubere to peel.

-verb (used with object)

1. to split or divide by or as if by a cutting blow, especially along a natural line of division, as the grain of wood.

2. to make by or as if by cutting: to cleave a path through the wilderness.

3. to penetrate or pass through (air, water, etc.): The bow of the boat cleaved the water cleanly. EXPAND

4. to cut off; sever: to cleave a branch from a tree. COLLAPSE

-verb (used without object)

5. to part or split, especially along a natural line of division.

6. to penetrate or advance by or as if by cutting (usually followed by through ).

- vb (when intr, foll by through ) , cleaves , cleaving , cleft , cleaved , clove , cleft , cleaved , cloven 1. to split or cause to split, esp along a natural weakness 2. ( tr ) to make by or as if by cutting: to cleave a path 3. to penetrate or traverse

Word Origin & History

"to split," O.E. cleofan "to split, separate" (class II strong verb, past tense cleaf, past participle clofen). Past tense form clave is recorded in Northern writers from 14c. and was used with both verbs (see cleave (2)), apparently by analogy with other ME strong verbs. Common to c.1600 and still alive at the time of the King James Bible; weak p.t. cleaved also emerged in 14c. for this verb; cleft is still later. The p.p. cloven survives, though mostly in compounds.

"to adhere," O.E. clifian , from W.Gmc. *klibajanan.


Pokorny Etymon: gleubh -  'to cut, cleave, pare, slice' - Semantic Fields: to Cut; to Divide
Family/Language Indo-European Reflex(es) Gloss
Old English: cleofan, cleaf, clufon, clofen to cleave
  clufu clove
  geclyft cleft
Middle English: cleft/clift cleft
  cleven to cleave
  cliver clever
  clove clove
English: anaglyph chased/embossed/sculptured ornament in low relief
  cleave, clove/cleft, cloven/cleft to split/divide via cutting blow
  cleft (partially) split/divided
  cleft fissure, space/opening made by splitting
  clever showing physical skill/dexterity/resourcefulness
  clevi clevis
  clevis metal shackle with end drilled to receive pin/bolt
  clove small section of separable bulb (e.g. garlic)
  glume chaffy bract
  glyph ornamental vertical groove in Doric frieze
  glyptic art/process of carving/engraving
  hieroglyphic re: system of writing in pictorial characters
  kloof deep ravine
Middle Dutch: clove cleft
Dutch: klieven/klooven to cleave
  kloof kloof, cleft
Afrikaans: kloof kloof
Old Saxon: klioban to cleave
Old High German: kliuban to cleave
Middle High German: klieben/kliuben to cleave
German: klieben to cleave
  Kluft cleft
Old Norse: kljufa to cleave
Icelandic: kljufa to cleave
Danish: klove to cleave
Swedish: klyfva to cleave
Latin: glubo, glubere to peel
  gluma hull, husk
Late Latin: anaglyphus embossed
Middle French: hieroglyphique of the hieroglyphs
French: glyptique glyptic, study of engravures on fine stones
Greek: anaglyphein to emboss
  anaglyphos embossed
  glyptike glyptic
  glyphein to carve
  glyphe carved work
  hieroglyphikos re: hieroglyphs, sacred script