English - Spy

Hebrew - צָפָהSapa

Spy, Look Out, Keep Watch

This word, its derivatives and cognates, covers a broad range of application. It is found not only in the Semitic family but also widely in the Indo-European from far in the past.

Bishop Origin:
This word came down into Christianity through application in church functions.

An overseer: In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters (Acts 20:17-28; 1 Pet. 5:1, 2; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3). The term bishop is never once used to denote a different office from that of elder or presbyter. These different names are simply titles of the same office, "bishop" designating the function, namely, that of oversight, and "presbyter" the dignity appertaining to the office. Christ is figuratively called "the bishop [episcopos] of souls" (1 Pet. 2:25).

Old English bisc(e)op from Vulgar Latin ebiscopus, Late Latin episcopus from Greek epískopos equivalent to epi- + skopós.

Scope Origin:
Italian scopo: purpose, goal, from 
from Latin scopus, Greek skopós: aim, target, watcher; akin to skopeîn: behold, to look at, consider, to watch. From hypothetical Proto IE *spek-  "to observe." See Sanskrit spasati  "sees;" Avestan spasyeiti  "spies;" Greek skeptesthai  "to look at;" Latin specere  "to look at;" O.H.G. spehhon  "to spy," German. spähen  "to spy"). This "scope" is found in English microscope and telescope.

Note the phonetic changes that lead from Hebrew sapa to Greek skopos, to German spehhon, to modern English spy.             

From TWOT:

sapa ‎conveys the idea of being fully aware of a situation in order to gain some advantage or keep from being surprised by an enemy. The verb appears in the sense "to lie watching in ambush"; the wicked watches the righteous to slay him (Ps 37:32). Conversely the wise woman watches (looks to) the ways of her household; i.e. she diligently takes care of its every need (Prov 31:27). So too Yahweh is alert to what happens on earth in order that he may properly judge its inhabitants (Prov 15:3; cf Ps 66:7). It also expresses the posture of faith; Micah says, "As for me, I will look to Yahweh, I will wait for the God of my salvation; my God will hear me" (Mic 7:7). Dhorme takes the from in Job 15:22 as a passive ptc. (‎sapu‎) meaning the result of being looked over, "choice" or "marked."

sôpeh‎ means "watchman, " one who was stationed on the wall and was responsible to inform the nation's leadership of any danger (cf. (1 Sam 14:16; 2 Sam 18:24ff; 2 Kings 9:17-20). Failure in his duties often carried the death penalty. The prophetic office is sometimes described in this language., To Ezekiel God says, "I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; whenever you hear a word from my mouth, you shall give them warning from me" (Ezek 3:17; cf Ezek 33:7; Jer 6:17; Hab 2:1). If Ezekiel failed to give them God's warning he was liable for their lives; but if he faithfully proclaimed the message, he was free from any further responsibility regardless of the people's response (Ezek 3:18-21). Although God was faithful in sending Israel watchmen, many became blind to their mission (Isa 56:10). The failure of these watchmen and the rejection of the true ones were major reasons for the downfall of Israel. Conversely, the true prophets will be the watchmen who are first to sing of the advance of God's new saving deeds (Isa 52:7-10).



Indo-European Reflexes on Spy
Family/Language Reflex(es) Gloss
Irish: easbog bishop
Scots Gaelic: easbuig bishop
Welsh: esgob bishop
Old Norse: spakr quiet; wise, learned
  speki wisdom; branch of learning, body of knowledge
Middle English: aspect aspect
  aspien to espy, detect, observe
  bisshop/bis(s)chop/bysshop(p)e bishop
  circumspect circumspect
  despisen to despise
  despite despite
  episcopal episcopal
  especial especial
  espien to espy
  perspective perspective
  prospect prospect
  respect respect
  respit respite
  specious specious
  spectacle spectacle
  spice spice
  spien to spy
  spite spite
  suspect suspect
  suspecten to suspect
English: aspect position of stars/planets w.r.t. one another
  auspice observation in augury (flight/feeding of birds)
  bishop prelate, one having spiritual/ecclesiastical supervision
  circumspect prudent, careful to consider circumstances/consequences
  colposcope endoscope for examining vaginal/cervical tissues
  colposcopy medical examination using colposcope
  conspicuous obvious to eye/mind
  despicable deserving to be despised
  despise to regard with contempt/aversion
  despite spite, pique, malice, contempt
  despite notwithstanding, in spite of
  epidiascope opaque projector
  episcopal re: bishop(s)
  especial special, particular
  espionage practice of spying/using spies
  espy to catch sight of
  expect to stay, wait
  frontispiece principal front of building
  horoscope diagram of relative positions of planets in zodiac
  inspect to look over, view closely, critically appraise
  introspect to examine reflectively
  periscope instrument using mirrors/prisms to transfer image between different heights
  perspective aiding vision
  perspective optical glass (e.g. in telescope)
  perspective process/technique of representing spatial relations of objects
  perspicacious keen, of acute mental vision/discernment
  prospect outlook, exposure
  respect reference, relation to/concern with something
  respite postponement, temporary delay
  retrospect to refer to past event
  -scope means/instrument for viewing/observing
  scope space/opportunity for unhampered thought/motion/activity
  -scopy viewing, observation
  skeptic adherent/advocate of skepticism
  species individuals having common attributes/designated by common name
  specimen sample, part/item typical of whole/group
  specious showy
  spectacle something exhibited as notable/unusual/entertaining
  spectrum array of components separated/arranged in order
  speculate to reflect, ponder/meditate on subject
  speculum tubular instrument inserted into body passage for inspection/medication
  spice aromatic vegetable product used to season/flavor food
  spite hatred, petty ill will
  spy to scout, watch secretly
  suspect suspected, regarded with suspicion
  suspect to distrust, have doubts about
  telescope optical instrument for observing distant objects
  transpicuous transparent
Dutch: bioscoop cinema
  bisschop bishop
  spiegel mirror
Old Saxon: biskop bishop
  spēgal mirror
Old High German: piscof bishop
  spehōn to spy
  spiegal mirror
Middle High German: bischof bishop
German: Bischof bishop
  spähen to spy, peer
  Spiegel mirror
Old Norse: biskup bishop
  spá prophecy, song of fate
  spegill mirror
Danish: bisp bishop
  spejl mirror
Swedish: biskop bishop
  spegel mirror
Gothic: aipiskaupus bishop
Latin: aspectus looked at
  aspicio, aspicere to look at
  auspex leader, protector, bird augur
  auspicium, auspicii divination via flight of birds
  circumspectō, circumspectāre, circumspectāvī, circumspectātum to look around
  circumspectus circumspect
  circumspicio, circumspicere to look around, be cautious
  cōnspiciō, conspicere, conspēxī, conspectum to perceive, get sight of
  conspicuus conspicuous, visible
  dēspiciō, dēspicere, dēspēxī, dēspectum to despise, look astray
  despicor, despicari to despoil, plunder
  exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī, exspectātum to wait for, look forward to
  horoscopus device to indicate time
  inspectus inspected
  inspicio, inspicere to inspect
  introspectus having looked inside
  introspicio, introspicere to look inside
  perspectus looked at through, clearly seen
  perspicax, perspicācis perspicacious, sharp-sighted
  perspicio, perspicere to look through, see clearly
  prospectus view, prospect
  prospectus foreseen
  prospicio, prospicere to look forward, exercise foresight
  respectus act of looking back
  respectus regarded, looked back at
  respicio, respicere to look back, regard
  retrospectus looked back at
  retrospicio, retrospicere to look back at
  scepticus skeptical
  species, speciei aspect, appearance; species
  specimen model, representative of species
  speciō, specere to look
  speciosus beautiful, plausible
  speco, specere to look at
  spectaculum show, spectacle
  spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum to watch, look/gaze at
  spectrum specter, appearance
  spectus looked at
  specula watchtower
  speculatus examined
  speculor, speculāri to examine, spy out
  speculum mirror
  specus, specus cave, pit
  suspecto, suspectāre to suspect
  suspectus looked at, suspected
  suspico, suspicere to look at from above
  transpicio, transpicere to look through
Late Latin: despicabilis despicable
  episcopalis episcopal
  episcopus bishop
  frontispicium front view, frontispiece
Medieval Latin: perspectivus optical, re: sight
  respectus respect
New Latin: -scopium -scope, looking
  spectrum array of components
  tele-scopium lit. far-seeing
  transpicuus transparent
Spanish: especia spice
  obispo bishop
Old French: despire to despise
  despit despite
  espice spice
  espier to espy, catch glimpse of
  respit rest
Middle French: circonspect circumspect
  espion spy
  espionage espionage
  espionner to spy
  frontispice frontispiece
  horoscope horoscope
  perspective view, perspective
  spectacle spectacle, magnifying glass
  suspect suspect
French: épice spice
  espionnage activity of spying
Old Italian: prospettiva technique of representing relations of objects
  prospetto view, prospect
  spione spy
Italian: dispetto despite
  scòpo goal, purpose
  vescovo bishop
Lithuanian: wyskupas bishop
Albanian: respektim respect
Homeric Greek: σκοπoς spy, scout, watch(man)
Attic: σκοπo to view, look at, consider
Greek: eπi-σκοπος guardian, overseer
  σκεπτικoς watchful, thoughtful, reflective
  σκeπτομαι to look out/about/carefully
  -skopion observation, examination
  τηλε-σκoπος lit. far-seeing
  hōro-skopos device to indicate time
Armenian: eskop bishop