|English - Shade (Demon)||Hebrew - שֵׁד, - Demon (Shade)|
demon = loan-word from Assyrian shadu, a protecting spirit, Aramaic (shido)
Both Deut 32:17 and Ps 106:37 use plural
shadeem, translated as demons.
From TWOT (2330):
From TWOT (2330):
OT:7700 (shade) demon.
Undoubtedly Hebrew shade is to be connected with the Babylonian word shadu, a demon either good or evil. In pagan religions the line between gods and demons is not a constant one. There are demons who are beneficent and gods who are malicious.
One cannot help but notice the paucity of references to the demonic in the OT and even where it occurs it is demythologized. Good and evil are in the moral, not the metaphysical, sphere. Kaufmann (p. 65) says, "When the gods of the nations are called shadeem it is not meant that they are evil spirits, but that they are insubstantial shades, 'no-gods,' with neither divine nor demonic functions."
The wraps are taken off the demonic in the Bible in the Gospels and the Revelation. That is to say, the demonic appears most profusely when Jesus is present. We know from Mark 16: God has opened to us the satanic world only in the presence of Christ (Kinlaw, p. 8).
The Term Shade in Literature:
The term in classical mythology translates Greek σκιά in reference to the notion of spirits in the Greek underworld. In Greek literature and poetry, a shade is understood to mean the spirit or ghost of a dead person.
Shades appear in Homer's the Odyssey, when Odysseus experiences a vision of Hades, and in the Aeneid, when Aeneas travels to the underworld. In the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, many of the dead are similarly referred to as shades (Italian ombra), including Dante's guide, Virgil.
The phrase 'peace to the/thy/her gentle shade' (and endless rest) is sometimes seen in epitaphs, and was used by Alexander Pope.
In Christopher Nolan's Inception, the main character is haunted by his deceased wife in his dreams and in the marketing materials, she was referred to as "The Shade."
In Clifford Simak's novel "Cemetery World", the fifth column of dispossessed souls, as represented by Ramsay O'Gillicuddy, declined the appellation of "ghosts", preferring "shade."
Greek skotos (From comparison one can see the lack of demonic or spirit reference in the above I-E Table .)
1. shadow, reflection, image.
2. shade of one dead, phantom, of one worn to a shadow.
3. evil spirit, Hippiatr.130, PMasp.188.5 (vi A.D.).
5. silhouette, profile.
Hebrew Inflections of - שֵׁד, - Demon (Shade)
More often inflected versions of the word were used, shuwd and shadad, that reveals the meaning behind the function of this concept: violence, ravage, desolation, destruction, oppression, robbery, spoil, and wasting were the result of the work of the Devil, the malignant Shade who haunts all of mankind.
2331 OT:7703,7736 (shadad) = ruin, destroy, spoil. OT:7701 (shad) = havoc.
The verb appears fifty-seven times in the OT: in the Qal, thirty-two times; Niphal once(Mic 2:4); Piel twice (Prov 19:26; 24:15); Poel once (Hos 10:2); Pual nineteen times; Hophal twice (Isa 33:1; Hos 10:14). Of these fifty-seven uses, forty-eight of them are to be found in the books of the classical prophets (with Jeremiah leading the way, twenty-six times), thus indicating in what parts of the OT canon shadad appears most frequently.
[The first number (2331) refers to the TWOT. The later numbers refer to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.]
שׁוֹד Jb 5:21.
יָשׁוּד PS 91:6.
[שָׁדַד S7703, 7736 TWOT2331 GK8720]56 vb. deal vlolently with, despoil, devastate, ruin (NH id., Niph.; Arabic سَدَّ (sadda) stop up, obstruct, arrest, make firm; Ethiopic ሰደደ (sadada) expel; Assyrian šadâdu is draw, drag);—Qal Pf. 3 pl. consec. וְשָֽׁדְדוּ Ez 32:12; sf. שַׁדּוּנִי ψ 17:9; Impf. 3 ms. יָשׁוּד (metapl., cf. Ges§ 67 q Bae) ψ 91:6, sf. יְשָׁדֵּם (Ges§ 67 n) Pr 11:3 Qr (Kt Pf. ושׁדם), יְשָׁדְדֵם Je 5:6; Imv. mpl. שָׁדְדוּ (Ges§ 67 cc) 49:28; Inf. abs. שָׁדוֹד Mi 2:4; cstr. לִשְׁדוֹד Je 47:4 (Ges§ 45 g), cf. also שֹׁד Ho 10:14; Pt. act. שֹׁדֵד Je 6:26 +, etc.; pass. שָׁרוּד Ju 5:27 +, f. שְׁדוּדָה ψ 137:8;—violently destroy, pers., = slay Ju 5:27 (pass.), Je 5:6 (wolf subj.; || הִכָּה); acc. Philistines 47:4 (|| הִכְרִית), v 4 (subj. י׳); = devastate, acc. בָּבֶל (subj. י׳) Je 51:55, cf. ψ 137:8 (read prob. הַשֹּׁדֵדָה We Du cf. Ew Hi הַשָּׁדוֹדָה v. Köii. 194); אֶת־גְּאוֹן מִצְרַיִם Ez 32:12 (|| נִשְׁמַד), cf. Ho 10:14, אֶת־מַרְעִיתָם Je 25:36 (subj. י׳), abs. Is 21:2 (|| בָּגַד), 33:1 (on use of pt. v. Ges§ 120 b), pass. v 1 (|| בָּנַד), אַתְּי שְׁדוּד Je 4:30 (Gf BaNB 179, but dub.; < Du שְׁדוּדָה); = despil, acc. pers. Je 49:28; = bring pers. to ruin Mi 2:4 (Inf. abs. + Niph. q.v.), Pr 11:3; weaker, assail ψ 17:9; elsewhere Pt. act. as subst. devastator (despoiler?): of national foes Is 16:1; 21:2; 33:1 Je 6:26 + 8 times Je; שׁוֹדְדֵי לַיְלָה Ob 5 (|| גַּנָּבִים) del. Now GASm; personal foe Jb 15:21; representing wicked in gen. 12:6 (|| מַרְגִּיזֵי אֵל). †Niph. Pf. 1 pl. שָׁדוֹד נִשַׁדֻּנוּ Ges§ 67 u) we are utterly ruined Mi 2:4. †Pi. Impf. 2 ms. אַל־שַׁדֵּד רִבְצוֹ Pr 24:15 3 (|| אַל־תֶּאֱרֹב); Pt. as subst. מְשַׁדֶּד־אָב Pr 19:26 he who assaults, maltreats (his) father (|| יַבְרִיחַ אֵם). †Pu. Pf. 3 ms. שֻׁדַּד Is 15:1 +, 3 fs. שֻׁדְּדָה Je 4:20 +, שָׁדְּדָה Na 3:7 (Ges§ 52 q), etc.;—be devastated, of city Is 15:1(×2); 23:1 Je 48:1; 49:3 Na 3:7, country or nation Je 4:20, cf. v 13 9:18; 48:15, 20; 49:10, dwellings (אֹהֶל) Je 4:20; 10:20, trees Zc 11:2 (del. StaZAW i (1881), 25), cf. v 33, strength of ships Is 23:14, field (by drought) Jo 1:10, crop v 10. †Pō˓el violently destroy: Impf. 3 ms. יְשֹׁדֵד מַצֵּבוֹתָם Ho 10:2 (|| יַעֲרֹף מִזְבְּחֹתָם). †Hoph. Impf. (or Qal pass. Impf.? cf. Ges§ 53 u) be devastated: 3 ms. בָּל־מִבְצָרֶיךָ יוּשָּׁ֑ד Ho 10:14 (of Ephr., < We pl. יושׁדו); 2 ms. תּוּשַּׁד Is 33:1 (subj. שׁוֹדֵד, v. Qal).