The foregoing discussions are intended for survey purposes only. I did
not include many items which build on my thesis. For example, by following
names and traditions, I was able to discover two other paths by which the
late Iberi migrated into Europe.
The first of those is recognized by the word kumri or kimri.
It is found as the Hebrew root, khamar. It was used widely in the
ancient Near East to describe a people who had red skins. This name can
be followed from Asia Minor, through the Balkans, into Germany, and eventually
into the British Isles where today the people of Wales remember themselves
by their old name, the Kymri.
Brown, Driver, and Briggs, show khamar as a verb which means
"to be red." In Arabic it is used for "dye red," "redness," and "reddish
brown, apparently a skin color." In Job 16:16 it is translated in some
versions as "my face is reddened from weeping." The verb also means "to
boil up" or "to ferment." It has the following inflections:
1) Kimmer = Pi'el singular third person past tense.
Gomer is sometimes thought to derive from gamar, a cognate word which means "to end," in the sense of completion or failure. However, K-to-G phonetic changes could have given the name Gomer from Komer. The Kumri, Gumri, and Gamir place names in Asia Minor are all phonetic variations of this root. The designation Kimmeri/Gimirrai, as a description for red skin color, may have developed from groups of red-skinned Iberi who integrated among the native tribes around the Black Sea. The appellatives Kimmeri, Kimri or Gimmeria denoted the visible skin color rather than the Iberi tribal designation.
The name has a phonetic variation in Cymbri, (recognized as a Teutonic/Keltic
tribe), and was used widely to name geographical features. Thus we can
recognize how the Kimmerians were merely part of a larger flow of Semitic
Iberi in the middle to late first millennium BCE.
A second group of people were the Gauli. They gave us the Keltic name.
Ga'al is a Hebrew verb root which means "to be redeemed." It
is used extensively in the Bible.
Ga'alee (Roman Galli as the inhabitants of Gaul) is the
singular female imperative of the Kal = "Redeemed!"
Ga'alt, from which "Kelt" probably derives, is the singular female
second person of the past tense, literally = "you were redeemed."
According to Timagenes, a writer in the reign of Augustus,
". . . the Gauls are all exceedingly careful of cleanliness and
neatness, nor in all the country, and most especially in Aquitania, could
any man or woman, however poor, be seen either dirty or ragged."
Although the record of the classical writers is sparse Pliny reported on the refinements of their personal care. He stated that they had invented a special soap for personal bathing, special ointment to improve the complexion of the woman, and fine perfumes. Other writers described refined toilette devices. Although Julius Caesar referred to them as "those trousered barbarians" other writers described the gracefulness of the female dress and the personal ornaments of both sexes. Typical of a view expressed by the Romans is that of Ammianus Marcellinus:
"Nearly all of the Gauls are of a lofty stature, fair and of ruddy
complexion. They are terrible from the sternness of their eyes, very quarrelsome,
and of great pride and insolence. A whole group of foreigners would not
be able to withstand a single Gaul if he called his wife to his assistance,
who is usually very strong and with blue eyes; especially when, swelling
her neck, gnashing her teeth, and brandishing her sallow arms of enormous
size, she begins to strike blows mingled with kicks, as if they were so
many missiles sent from the string of a catapult. "
Note the description of their ruddy (red) complexion.
The people designated Gauli widely mixed with other Iberi migrations
to blur distinction among their respective movements. The Iberi of Ireland
and Scotland are now known as Keltic people.
Thus I have identified four major routes of migration of the "red" Iberi
into Europe. These are the Puni, the obvious Iberi, the Kimmeri/Kymri,
and the Keltic Galli. The evidence shows a blending and blurring of peoples
which confused designations by the ancients. This history prevents precise
separation of the several movements.
I offer this information to show the wealth of material which is available
to us,--- if we wish to make use of it.
I shall now discuss some words we commonly use everyday which had their
origin in an ancient Semitic source.
When we open the meaning of the original Don and Dona names we find
vast new vistas in understanding.
I shall illustrate first with "judgment." This is the Semitic meaning
of the Don and Dona names. This influence came into the Indo-European languages
in various disguises.
The don form is found in Portugal as dom. The "n to m"
change is found many places other than the Latin dominus.
Consider the English word, doom. It comes from the Old English
= "judgment event." The Oxford English Dictionary lists numerous
changes in meaning over the centuries: statute, law, enactment, decree,
justice, equity, righteousness, formal judgment of decision, power or authority
to judge, the last judgment of the world, and so on.
Obviously the Teutonic -dom has origin in some source connected
to judging or judgment.
This stem produced such Teutonic words as king-dom, free-dom, wis-dom,
and so on, with the sense of "statute, judgment, or jurisdiction."
The word has both phonetic and semantic relationship to the Hebrew don
that cannot be ignored. From my investigations I reached the conclusion
that the "n to m" shift was intentional, and not evolutionary. The Indo-Europeans,
heavily weighted toward the attitude that Don was a god, refused to use
his name directly in their language. They reserved application of "Don"
to formal names and titles for those they believed were descended from
that god. However, they transformed phonetics to represent his influence.
went to dom. This phonetic alteration, based on the same original
Don name, is found in many Indo-European applications.
HOUSE AND HOME
Consider the more general I-E root dom. It is found in Indian
Vedic literature as dama- = "house," in Iranian dam- = "family
or house," Old Slavic domu = "home," Greek domos = "house,"
Latin domus = "house," and in English borrowed from Latin: domicile
and domestic. The last two words demonstrate two senses of the dom-
root -- a place of residence and a settled style of family life.
Emile Benveniste, in his absorbing book, Indo-European Language and
Society, showed that originally the dom root meant "home," the
gathering place for the family, and not "house," the structure in which
they assembled. In Greece the word gradually shifted over to mean merely
the structure; another Greek word, oikos, was eventually used for
domestic life. Benveniste also showed that from the dom- root came
the Latin dominus, the master or lord of the home. Later this evolved
into application to a civil Lord.
If this derivation is correct it accents our problem with the Don and
Dona titles. Given the clear evidence of the Hebrew Don verb we have strong
support for our earlier deduction that the Iberian Don did not come from
the Latin Dominus but that it carried independently from some other, far
more ancient, practice. Rather than the Latin Dominus being the source
of the other titles we now find it sitting independently with an origin
through the domestic path. If the Semitic Don was the origin of the Don
and Dona titles of IE Europe, the Semitic source must obviously be far
more ancient than the Latin Dominus.
We are led back to the question of the origin of the I-E dom
form. It is natural to ask if the I-E dom = "home" derived from
that personality named Don? Did an ancient group of I-E people name the
home in honor of Don because he was the one who instituted the social
practice of a settled home? If so, it would mean once again that a very
common and basic word in the I-E languages derived from that earlier Semitic
These examples, with the Don and Dona titles, the Teutonic -dom,
and the general IE dom raise a crucially important question. How
many I-E words can be traced back to an influence which originates in that
Semitic ground spring?
Consider the Sanskrit duna, and its general IE companions representing
water. We can postulate with considerable confidence that the word originated
in that Great Source, Don. Through other inflectional variations he came
to represent a basic necessity of life. He was truly respected. The ancients
believed he was the well-spring of a whole host of practical applications.
As we reflect on this phenomena we are led back to consider how the
title survived in the I-E languages but not Adon, while the title
Adon survived in the Semitic, but not Don. Somewhere along
the way a separation took place between those who respected the god, but
did not look upon him as ancestral. Ancestry was limited to the noble class.
They became the IE people. But the Semitic groups, as a general body, looked
upon Don as ancestral. They did not consider him to be a god. In
the first case with use of the Don title, a respect was shown
for the individual who deserved that title; in the second case with use
of the Adon title, a relationship was emphasized between
that individual and others.
Further insights are offered by other evidence. In ancient Vedic literature
the adjective damunah means "domestic (protector) of the house."
The Armenian tanuter means "master of the house." In Sanskrit two
similar phrases are dam-pitah and pater-dan, both meaning
"master of the house." But pater-dan, literally, is "Father Don."
Thus we see how convoluted the various forms may become, but in certain
cases we may have a literal memory of that ancient father-god.
We can follow the dom influence in other inflections.
Another I-E root is dem- = "to build." It is illustrated in the
Greek root demo- = "to build or to construct." It is found in the
Greek word doma = "a rooftop," which we still carry in English dome.
It is in Greek oikodomos = "a builder or architect," the one who
was the "home-builder." Note our English word major-domo = "head
of the domestic household." The root dem- probably derives from
dom- meant the home, the social apparatus, while dem- came
to mean the structure. From this root derived the Greek noun, demas
= "physical shape, appearance, or stature." It was used adverbially as
"in the manner of," literally "according to the appearance, the form of,"
or "as it was built."
From the I-E dem- root other words developed in the Teutonic languages. With a "d-to-t" shift and vowel change dem- went to tim-. It is found in Gothic ga-timan and German gezieman = "to be in accord, to agree," literally "to be constructed in the same manner." A derived noun, dem-ro, gave us English timber = "wood for construction." The Gothic verb timrjan meant "to work in wood," (German zimmern), while the abstract noun ga-timrjo meant "construction."
Thus we can see how the dom- root, which meant the home, the
social apparatus, could easily inflect into the dem- root, for the
structure. This inflectional change then led to a host of other words,
all revolving around the material aspects of the residence rather than
the social aspects.
Still other words derived from the dom- root. Greek damao
meant "to subdue" or "to tame." It carried the sense of subjecting natural
things, wild animals or uncultured man, to the rule of the home, to domestic
control and tranquility. The Latin word was domare. Cognates in
the Teutonic languages were Old High German zam and Gothic tamjan,
known to us in Old English tam, modern English tame. A derived
Greek word was a-damatos, "to be indomitable," so strong that all
would be subject to that will. From adamatos we get our word adamant.
The same root was used other ways. Greek demos = "the people,
the public" derived from dam-, the I-E word for family, which in
turn came from dom-. The Greek usage can be explained as follows:
Originally a family has brothers and sisters. These marry to bring in
mates from other families but they become part of the first family. They
are regarded as family. As this family increases in size it becomes a "Grossfamilie,"
a clan which may live in the same community or geographical region but
which occupies numerous houses. However, the name dam is still retained
after generations to denote this large group related by blood. Eventually,
to differentiate between the immediate family and the clan the word shifted
in pronunciation and meaning. Dam went to demos in Greek
and came to mean the entire gathering of people who no longer identified
with one another as immediate family. They were now the entire social unit,
the "people," or the "public." And from Greek demo other words spread
into other languages. English now has demagogue = "people + leader."
= "people + authority." Other words derived from this use of the root.
Thus we see how a single word, coming out of that Great Forefather,
through simple phonetic inflections, can blossom out into manifold uses
and hold its mind-forming sway on untold human generations. We also obtain
some insight into how that original Semitic tongue left an impact on the
Benveniste expressed concern that the several word roots, dom-,
or dem- were listed together under one category in the etymological
dictionaries. He felt the individual terms were independently derived and
that "there is nothing more than homophony between dem- 'family' and
dem- 'construct'." He admitted that a cross influence existed but he
felt the contamination from one to the other was due to a tendency to identify
social groups with material habitats. From this study we see they are phonetically
and semantically close because they derive from the same word, that ancient
Great Father, Don.
I mentioned meanings in these words related to protection, or strength.
Power and strength was another attribute of that ancient personality. We
find it in many Keltic and Teutonic words.
A Keltic word is cumb; it means a "deep valley." It is found in such names as Duncombe, Holcombe, Winchcombe and so on. The Romans used the word castra = "camp" to denote their encampments. Villages and towns grew up around these camps or forts with names which later were adopted by the Anglo-Saxons. They turned castra into ceaster; we know the word today in Chester, Colchester, Dorchester, Manchester, Winchester, Lancaster, Doncaster, Gloucester, Worcester, and many others. The names Duncombe and Doncaster show the influence of that ancient Don. The Anglo-Saxons also used their word dun for moor, down, height, hill, and mountain. Many dun names are known: Ashdown, Bredon, Hambledon, Snowdon, Hendon, Dunham, Dunton, Dundon, and so on. Dundon is a marriage of the Anglo-Saxon dun with the Keltic don; literally it would mean "the hill of Don." Duncombe could be "the moor of the deep valley." But in the blending of dun with don we cannot easily determine if Bredon, Snowdon, Hendon and others may come from the Kelts or the Anglo-Saxons. The use of Don as a prefix on Doncaster suggests that the don name carried significance at very early times, prior to the Romans, since it was used in combination with the Roman caster.
I shall now turn to a related discussion. Although I am not able to
identify a Semitic source, I shall demonstrate that our ancient forefathers
looked upon life with devout respect. That ancient Don had an influence
which rippled through all of ancient society. Our notions of primitive
evolutionary peoples with primitive minds is badly displaced. This can
be illustrated in concepts of kingship in ancient times.
The Latin word for king was Rex. The Sanskrit word was Raj(an),
modern Rah(ah). In Hindi Raj means to reign or rule. Among
the Kelts this word appeared as a suffix in the names of the leaders of
Gallic tribes: Dumno-rix and Vercingeto-rix. Among the Irish
it was variously spelled as Ri, Righ, or Rig, both
with and without the guttural ending.
The Indians, Romans, and Kelts all remembered the rex form. In
Teutonic languages the word for "king" was German Koenig, Old English
and Gothic Kuni. This form derives from kin = "family" or
"blood relations." The Teutonic word king has no phonetic relation to Rex.
The question I address here is the origin of the rex-rix-raj-righ
title. Since the Latin word reg-is is merely another form of Rex
it may be useful to examine similar words. Regius meant "royal,"
"regal," and "kingly" while regio meant "district," "region," or
"boundary," that which was ruled by the Rex. Regno meant "to rule"
while rectus meant "straight" or "direct"; rego meant "to
guide" or "direct," "to rule" or "manage." These words are all obviously
related to one another from that common reg- root. We have such
English cognates as "region," "regal," "royal," "regulate," "regular,"
and "rectify," all derived from Latin.
Among the Romans the phrase regeres fines meant literally "trace
out the limits by straight lines." It was a function carried out by priests
prior to the construction of a temple, sacred area, or town. In days of
antiquity all such actions were sacred, dedicated to a Creator God. (Or,
as the mythologists would have it, a dedication to the gods who first laid
out temples and towns.) The setting of straight-line boundaries was the
responsibility of the person who carried important religious power. Originally
he carried the title rex. This is recognized in the ancient phrase
sacrorum. The rex was charged with the task rex sacra. The Druids,
the all-important Keltic priests, personified this important social role.
No social action was taken without their approval and permission, including
the highest actions of state. Keltic chiefs were subservient to them and
acknowledged their authority in all matters relating to the future welfare
of the society.
The concept of "straight conduct" in the reg- root is seen in
the Latin regere = "to make or lead straight." Reg- not only
applied to the survey of straight lines for temples or towns, it also applied
to social conduct. English phrases express this same idea. Our word "right"
denotes the concept of "being straight," or "in line." The concept of "straightness"
is found in the other Latin reg- forms. Rectus = "straight
+ line," from which we get our English "rectilinear" and "rectify." Regula,
through French, is the origin of our English "rule," and the regulation
Different forms of "rule" are listed in the Oxford English Dictionary:
1. A principle, regulation or maxim for moral conduct.
The Latin word regula was also used for a straight stick, bar,
ruler, pattern, and so on. This evidence all suggests that the reg-
root originally meant that which was straight. It not only meant something
that was physically straight, as in straight lines and construction rulers,
but also something that was straight socially and morally. We use such
expressions as "go straight" for someone who refrains from criminal conduct,
but also "act straight" with our contemporaries, to be forthright and honest
with them. The Rex was the exemplar of upright, proper and "straight" conduct.
He was the moral leader of the community, the one entrusted with responsibility
to ensure that all other members of the community also conducted themselves
in a "straight" manner. He laid out the "rules" and "regulations" as well
as the sacred areas. He was the one to keep everything "right." He made
sure that all was done with respect to a higher moral allegiance. Thus
he became a priest and the leader of the people. As time passed he began
to take on more political responsibilities with less recognition of the
moral and religious ones. Thus the title eventually came to mean the ruler
or sovereign, the king.
Our words "rich" and "right" derive from this same I-E root but came
down to us through the Teutonic languages, not the Romance. Although the
Teutonic languages do not show the reg- or rec- form for
a king or ruler, there are vestiges of this word in Gothic raihts
and German recht, which we retain in our English "right" and "righteous."
Righteous comes from "right + wise." The pervasive use of right can be
found in the Oxford English Dictionary which gives seven pages of
definition and other uses for the word. The religious meanings are portrayed
in such phrases as "the right hand of God" and "to turn to the right and
not to the left." Right, in the sense of straight, contrasts with that
which is bent, crooked, or twisted. A person is a crook if he steals.
Our word rich comes from a Teutonic root found in Gothic reiks.
Originally "rich" meant someone who was powerful and mighty, noble and
great. Because material wealth accumulated to those individuals the word
now means merely that which is of great material possession or abundant
physical wealth. The Roman, Keltic and Indian people retained the word
for a noble ruler in that ancient I-E society. The rex was a spiritual
and moral leader, the one to do "right." The importance of his social role
eventually led to the use of his title for kingly rule, while in the Teutonic
and Slavic regions the evolution to kingship forced use of other words
for king; the superior social role of the priest had been lost.
From this brief survey we see that the Dons and Donas were the leaders of the people by right of birth, descended from an original Don, but that civil rule was subject to religious authority. The Teutons and Slavs may have forgotten, but the Romans and Kelts did not, at least not until later times. The picture we infer here of Keltic and Germanic society seems greatly different from that portrayed to us by classic writers such as Julius Caesar and Posidonius. Particularly abhorrent to them was the rite of human sacrifice, a religious practice which the Romans themselves had not long since left behind. The memory of it lingers in our Bible when Abraham took his son Isaac away to the sacrificial altar, Gen 22. See also Judg 11:29-40, a truly sorrowful story, I Kings 16:34, and Exod 22:29. For those of us living in the modern civilized world this practice is grossly barbaric. But for the people of those days it was a highly devout rite, most important of all propitiation to the gods. They entered into the spirit of deep religious cleansing, as devout as the practice of Christians today when they eat the body and drink the blood of Jesus in the Eucharist. It certainly was primitive, inherited from the earlier days of man's superstitious past. It also became greatly degraded in some societies. The Aztec Indians of later times degenerated to gross blood-letting in their national celebrations. I do not justify it; I merely try to show that it was a devout rite that did not in any way detract from upright and moral conduct in the society which practiced it. If anything it made them more serious about their social and religious obligations, in contrast to our modern religious allegiance which we take ever so casually.
These examples will illustrate the fact of a highly devout and refined culture in very ancient times which derived from some source the ancients denoted as a "Don" god, or an "Adamic" forefather. He left a profound influence upon the nations, which we acknowledge every day in our common words, but of which we are blissfully unaware.