English Hebrew
ASH = the powdery residue of matter that remains after burning. ASH = Fire =  אֵשׁ

IE Root

To burn, glow. Oldest form *es-, colored to *as-.

Derivatives include arson and azalea.

1. Extended form *asg-. ash, from Old English sce, asce, ash, from Proto Germanic *askon-.

(cf. Old Norse aska, Old High German asca, German asche, Gothic azgo "ashes", (cf. Sanskrit asah "ashes, dust," Armenian azazem "I dry up," Greek azein "to dry up, parch").

bef. 950; Middle English a(i)sshe, Old English asce, sce; c. Frisian esk, Dutch asch, Old Norse, akin to L ārēre be dry (see arid), Tocharian ās- get dry, Hittite hassi on the hearth.


2. Suffixed form *as-a- from Latin ara, altar, hearth. ara sepulchri, a funeral pile,

3. Suffixed (stative) form *as-e-.

a. arid, from Latin aridus, dry, parched, from arare, to be dry;

b. ardent, ardor, arson, from Latin ardere, to burn, be on fire, from aridus, parched. In the older languages ara derived from Oscan aasa; Umbrian asa.

4. Extended form *asd-.

We can see the alternate Latin "s" and "r" forms in

aestus ūs, an agitation, glow, heat, rage of fire:

ārĭdus = dry, withered, arid, parched.


aza az drought.

azapa, azata, drought.

azaleos az = dry, parched, parching, scorching.

azomai (act. az, Hesiod): dry, grow dry

az to dry up, parch.

a. zamia, from Greek azein, to dry;

b. azalea, from Greek azaleos, dry.


ās = A kitchen, fire-place.

ās = Anger;


fire (Assyrian iatu, Syriac ܐܶܫܳܬܳܐ (˒eoto), እሳት (˒əsāt) )

1. fire, of conflagration, e.g. in briers, endangering or destroying crops, Ex 22:5 cf. 3:2, more often deliberate destruction by fire, especially golden calf Ex 32:20, other idols Dt 7:5, 25, Asherim 12:3, chariots Jos 11:6, 9, 2 K 23:11, house Ju 12:1; 14:15, tower 9:52, city-gates Ne 1:3; 2:3, 13, 17, city Jos 6:24 Ju 18:27.

2. of supernatural fire, attending theophany Ex 3:2; 19:18, Dt 4:11, 12, 15, 33, 36; of destructive fire from Nu 11:1, 2, 3; of Yahwehs glory Ex 24:17, Dt 4:24; 9:3.

3. fire for cooking, roasting, parching, etc. Ex 12:8, 9, Lv 2:14 2 Ch 35:13 Is 44:16, 19; of tinder for lighting fire Gn 22:6, 7; of fire for melting (gold for the idolatrous calf) Ex 32:24; for refining Je 6:29.

4. especially of altar-fire Lv 1:7; 6:2, 3, 5, 16; in offering incense Lv 10:1, fire from consuming sacrifice (cf. 2 Lv 9:24 2 Ch 7:1, 3; of fire in child-sacrifice (usually) 2 K 16:3; 21:6.

5. figuratively, of Yahwehs anger ψ 89:47  cf. Na 1:6 La 2:4.

6. in various combinations, Gn 15:17 a torch of fire; Ex 3:2 flame of fire, spark of his fire Jb 18:5, ψ 21:10 oven of fire, Zc 12:6; light of fire ψ 78:14; flaming fire ψ 104:4; Is 5:24 tongue of fire, Ez 1:13 coals of fire.


iātu = fire; iātu ummudu to set afire, (bon)fire beacon

iāti * = on fire, ablaze

Comparison with other Semitic languages 

  • Proto-Semitic : *i
  • Hebrew: ē 
  • Ugaritic: ỉt  
  • Ge'ez: sāt



(atesh) Fire.

(ateshe-parsee) Fever heat, febrile, labial herpes. St. Antony's fire, (ateshzadan) to set on fire, to light. Figurative, to exasperate, to put an end to, to consume, as by burning. Hence, to waste away.   Transitive verb, to put fire into, to furnish with fire, to light.



172 OT:784,OT:800 va@ () fire.

172a OT:801 hV#a! (ieh) fire offering.

e appears over 375 times in the Bible. Preponderantly, these references are in the context of either God's revelation of himself to man (theophany) or man's approach to God (worship and sacrifice).


List of References

BDB: Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, F. Brown, S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1951. Now available electronically from Logos Bible Software, as Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, electronic edition, Logos Research Systems, Oak Harbor, WA, 2000.

SEC: Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, J. Strong, Abingdon Press, New York, 1890. Now available on line from multiple sources, such as BIBLESOFT, 22014 7th Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98198.

OED: Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1971. Now available on line from Online Subscription Department, Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016.

TWOT: Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament by R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, Moody Press, 1980. Now available on line from multiple sources, such as BIBLESOFT, 22014 7th Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98198.

The Word: Isaac Mozeson, SPI Books, New York, 1989

I offer no references for words that come from various other languages, and that can be traced by browsing the World Wide Web.