PROPULSION MECHANISM

 

But the greatest curiosity, upon which the fate of the island depends, is a loadstone of prodigious size, in shape resembling a weaver's shuttle. It is in length six yards, and in the thickest part at least three yards over. This magnet is sustained by a very strong axle of adamant passing through its middle, upon which it plays, and is poised so exactly that the weakest hand can turn it. It is hooped round with an hollow cylinder of adamant, four feet deep, as many thick, and twelve yards in diameter, placed horizontally, and supported by eight adamantine feet, each six yards high. In the middle of the concave side there is a groove twelve inches deep, in which the extremities of the axle are lodged, and turned round as there is occasion. 

 

The stone cannot be moved from its place by any force, because the hoop and its feet are one continued piece with that body of adamant which constitutes the bottom of the island.   

By means of this loadstone, the island is made to rise and fall, and move from one place to another. For, with respect to that part of the earth over which the monarch presides, the stone is endured at one of its sides with an attractive power, and at the other with a repulsive. Upon placing the magnet erect with its attracting end towards the earth, the island descends; but when the repelling extremity points downward, the island mounts directly upwards. When the position of the stone is oblique, the motion of the island is so too. For in this magnet the force always acts in lines parallel to its direction. 
 

Jonathan Swift in 
The Voyage to Laputa,

Travels Into Several Remote Nations of the World, 1726


 

You are seeing the parts of the ship and its mechanism which your mind is capable of grasping. The large drumlike structure just above the central bulkhead is the differential accumulator. It is essentially a storage battery which is capable of being charged from any of a number of natural energy differentials which may be available. By the word 'charged' I merely mean that a potential difference is created between two poles of the accumulator. The material of the poles has available free electrons in quantities beyond anything of which you could conceive. The control mechanism allows these electrons to flow through the two force rings which you see at the top and bottom of the craft. You are familiar enough with electrodynamics to know that a moving electron creates a magnetic field. The tremendous surge of electrons through the force rings produces a very strong magnetic field. Since the direction of and amplitude of flow can be controlled through either ring, and in several paths through a single ring, we can produce a field which is in opposition or in conjunction with any magnetic field

through which we wish to travel. This also gives us control of the attitude of the craft with respect to the given field. 

 

All bodies of matter which are in motion have magnetic fields about them for the reason just given: that all matter contains electrons and all electrons in motion produce magnetic fields. The magnetic field of your Earth is very weak in proportion to its gravitational field and it may be difficult for you to understand how acceleration against a strong field can be produced by opposition to a weak one. Just remember what happens when you bring together the 'like' or opposing poles of two 'permanent' magnets, how the lines of force are pushed outward almost perpendicular to their normal position. So the field of the craft fans out until it intersects sufficient lines of the Earth's field to produce the required propulsion. 
 

Daniel Fry, 1950

Reported in White Sands Incident, 1954,

and several other later books, all by different publishers.


 

A pillar about two feet thick extended downward from the very top of the dome to the center of the floor. Later I was told that this was the magnetic pole of the ship, by means of which they drew on Nature's forces for propulsion purposes, but they did not explain how this was done.

 

The top of the pole is normally positive, while the bottom . . . is negative. When necessary, these poles can be reversed merely by pushing a button. 

 

. . . As I alternated between watching the wonders of the sky and the swift Earth flashing beneath us, I noticed four cables which appeared to run through the floor lens (or immediately below it), joining the central pole in the form of a cross. 

Three of those cables carry power from the magnetic pole to the three balls under the ship which, as you have seen, are sometimes used as landing-gear. These balls are hollow and, although they can be lowered for emergency landing and retracted in flight, their most important purpose is as condensers for the static electricity sent to them from the magnetic pole. This power is present everywhere in the Universe. One of its natural but concentrated manifestations is seen displayed as lightning. 

 

George Adamski

Inside the Space Ships
Abelard-Schuman, 1955

 

I noticed that a good six feet of the central floor was occupied by a clear, round lens through which the magnetic pole was centered.  On opposite sides of this huge lens, close to the edge, were two small but comfortable benches curved to follow the circumference.  I was invited to sit on one of these and "Firkon" sat beside me to explain what was going on.  "Ramu" took a place on the opposite bench, while "Orthon" went to the control panels.  These were located against the outer wall between the two benches, directly opposite the now invisible door through which we had entered the Scout.

 

When we were seated, a small flexible bar fell into place across our middles.  This bar was either composed of, or merely

covered with, a kind of soft rubberized material.  Its purpose was obvious a simple safety device to prevent falling forward or losing balance.

 

Beyond this (corridor in larger disk craft) there seemed to be a central chamber in which I could see a large magnetic pole placed through the center of the ship.

 

George Adamski

Inside the Space Ships

Abelard-Schuman, 1955

 

 

This (room) was oval in shape, lit in the same manner as the preceding one, and had the same silvery polished metal walls. I believe this room must have been in the center of the machine, for there was a metal bar running from floor to ceiling right in the middle of it, and it was thick at both ends, much narrower in the middle. It was well-rounded and looked solid. I do not believe its only purpose was decorative; perhaps it was holding up the weight of the roof.

 

Testimony of Antonio Villas-Boas

Given to Dr. Olavo Fontes, M.D.

In the presense of Jaoa Martins, journalist 

Consulting room of Dr. Fontes, afternoon of Feb 22, 1958 

 

(Dr. Fontes was Professor of Medicine at the National School of Medicine, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil)

 

Published by Carol and Jim Lorenzen in 

Flying Saucer Occupants 
Signet Book #T3205 
New American Library, New York, 1967

 

. . . So how far do you go?

 

Not very far.  I start walking across the room.  I think I walked out of the door and into another area.

 

Alone?

 

Well, they were close on my heels, but I was trying to move fast.

 

You were calling the shots, though.

 

Pretty much.  And I was in another area, another control kind of area where they had the window and the machinery.  And there was something in the middle of the room.  It was like a big round thing sticking up that was luminous.  It was lit up.  And there was a little bar that went around it.  A couple of them had left their area in the examining room, and they started cornering

me, like you corner a cat or a rabbit. . . . But I got my back up against it. . . . And I just got my shoulders pinned up against it.

You say it had a rail around it.

 

Yeah, but that wasn't far away from it, and that pressed into the small of my back, kind of like it was drawing me toward it, pulling me back.  Maybe it's magnetic or something, but I guess there wasn't any metal on me.  But I pulled away from it, I felt like it shocked me or burnt me or something. I kept inching around the rail, but they kept moving in.  . . . I kept inching around the rail because they were coming at me from one side, but then they just surrounded the thing.  They came up, and somehow I felt like something just came over me and I was sitting on the ground by it.  I wasn't touching it, but my head was where the rail was.  And there was one of them doing something to my head again.

 

David Jacobs through hypnotic regression.

Date of event: 1980

White female attempted to escape confinement in examination room.

Anonymity of subject preserved through alias identity.

Secret Life, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1992.

 

 

Adamski's first description was from aboard a small circular disk craft; then a large disk.  The description produced by David Jacobs' hypnotic recall of a white female was of a large disk craft, again with a central pillar. Such large disks were described by Adamski and Fry. Adamski details the corridor arrangement of the larger disks. This corridor arrangement was also mentioned by Betty Hill.

 

The "window" referred to by the white female above probably was the clear central lens in the floor and the ceiling of the disk.

 

The magnetic properties were noted by Swift, Adamski, Fry, and this white female through hypnotic regression. But the idea of "magnetic" may have been a simplified explanation for convenience of the human mind.

 

Although the "pulling" power of the "pole" was remembered as "magnetic" it may have involved anti-gravity power. This is where

the grave danger lay. It may be that close proximity to the central pillar or pole would produce a disastrous affect on the the white female if she had not been prevented from "falling" into it by the rail.  The "power" of the pole created "burns" because of her proximity.  Adamski was unaware of this danger, or at least did not report it.

 

In another case David Jacobs reports a married couple who were in an examining room and also made an effort to escape. Note that the wall "bending back" parallels the corridor in a large disk craft described by Adamski. This corridor then led to the control room with the central pillar. Will and his wife Nancy (again use of alias by Jacobs) ran to that room.  This is where the danger existed.  Had he decided to turn toward the center of the room, rather than sliding along the wall, he and his wife "would be no more."

 

I just grabbed Nancy, turned, and went out the door.

 

Does Nancy say anything to you?

 

No, she's not saying anything to me.  She's not talking to me.  But I say, "Come on," and I'm pulling her and she's going with me. . . . I turn to my right, I pull her behind me, and we go out the door opening. . . . There's a wall on the right, and then that wall bends back and we're in the big room now.  But I keep bending right, like I'm going along the wall there.  And there's another opening, we go in there.  That's where it's like another room like the first one but there's no bed in it, no counter.

. . .

 

I ran into the room.

 

(Will reports that two of the Taller Beings caught up with them in this room and immediately began to exercise control over them.)

Okay, do they come over to you?

 

Yeah.  They, its like I feel myself getting limp, like I'm losing mobility. . . .I'm losing the ability to move out of there, I have the sense that they're not amused.

 

Do they communicate with you.

 

I have the sense that they were telling me that I could have caused serious problems if I had gone the wrong way.  I'm thinking, "What do you mean?  This is serious enough."  But they're saying it was very serious if I had not stopped.

 

Okay.

 

They said, "Highly serious."  They said, "You would be no more if you had not stopped."  And they are not happy at all.  They are definitely not very happy about it.


 

DISCUSSION

Before entering a detailed comparison of the reports quoted above, and examination of their technical significance, it may be helpful once again to consider the assessment of modern scholarship on Swift's description. Again we will resort to Nicolson and Mohler as the only two individuals who have given serious study to Swift's Flying Island and its means of locomotion.
 

Tracing back through the scientific literature on magnetism and loadstones they were impressed with the parallels between the descriptions given by William Gilbert and by Swift. They also considered the immense interest in electricity and magnetism which prevailed during Swift's lifetime. The English were proud of their contributions to this field of knowledge, as indicated by a remark made by John Wallis in a paper read before the Royal Society in 1701:
 

Whoever gave the first Hint of this Invention, certain it is, that the great Improvements of the Magnetick Doctrine are due to the English . . . and Mr. Gilbert's Notion (of the Earths whole Body being but one great Magnet; and lesser Magnets being so many Terrella's sympathizing with the whole) is English also. 

 

In the second series of the abridged edition of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society an entire section is devoted to Magneticks. There were numerous papers critiquing Gilbert's work, adding thereto, and expanding upon, although his work remained basic to all future studies.
 

In light of this widespread interest in magnetics, Nicolson and Mohler did not find it surprising that Swift would include Gilbert's dipping needle in his 'moon' ship. They felt that this prodigious central device for locomotion was merely a magnification and adaptation of Gilbert's needles. Gilbert's device was a loadstone; so was Swift's. Gilbert's needles could rotate vertically about a horizontal axis; so could Swift's. Gilbert's delicate device could easily be moved from place to place; Swift's loadstone was poised so delicately the weakest hand could turn it.
 

Gilbert had described how his instrument for indicating direction of magnetic lines of force could be adapted to a device with enormous lifting powers. (See On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies, and on the Great Magnet the Earth, by William Gilbert, translated by P. Fleury Mottelay, London, 1893, Book V, Chapter I, p. 276.) In that description he gives dimensions of an oblong stone which are the same proportion as those given by Swift, six by three yards. Gilbert visualized increasing magnetic bodies to very large sizes for use of their power: "Magnetic bodies in conjunction form one magnetic body; hence, the mass increasing, the magnetic energy increases also." Swift's loadstone was massive.

Nicolson and Mohler continue to draw out other comparisons between Gilbert and Swift. The limitation on movement of the Flying Island to the confines of Balnibarbi finds parallels in Gilbert's remarks on magnetic properties of the earth. Gilbert stated that:

As the globe of earth is at its surface broken and uneven, marred by matters of diverse nature, and hath elevated and convex parts that rise to the height of some miles ...it comes about that this entire earth-energy turns magnetic bodies at its periphery toward stronger massive magnetic parts that are more powerful and that stand above the general level. 

 

In line with this view Gilbert states that islands are more magnetic than the seas.
 

Swift states that the island cannot move beyond the extent of the dominions below, which are the confines of the island of Balnibarbi. Swift explains that their astronomers have explained this effect for the reason :
 

"that the magentic virtue does not extend beyond the distance of four miles, and that the mineral which acts upon the stone in the bowels of the earth, and in the sea six leagues distant from the shore, is not diffused through the whole globe, but terminated with the limits of the King's dominions." 

 

Nicolson and Mohler admit aspects of Swift's description do not tally with any known source. It was well known that a magnet could not be suspended in the air because the gravitational pull on the magnetic is far greater than any repulsive force it may exert on the weak magnetic field of the earth. Gilbert had made a specific denial of this possibility. Since this fact would be prominent in the mind of all researchers and the general public Swift could not have been ignorant of it. Swift also says that "For in this magnet the forces always act in lines parallel to its direction," a statement which does not fit with properties of magnets. Experiments with iron filings show that the lines of force about a magnet loop from one pole to the other, and thus would be parallel to the magnet body only at its midpoint between the two poles. Thus Swift denies the exact parallel with a magnet. If we were to follow the line that Swift is making a simple parody on science we could accuse him of simple ignorance. But we know now that he was well informed and could be precisely scientific when he so desired.
 

Following along with Swift's 'fiction' we find other problems. The loadstone with its axle rests in a circular hoop of adamant four feet deep. This circular hoop in turn rests upon eight adamantine feet six yards high. Therefore the axle rests in a hoop that is twenty-two feet above the floor of the Astronomer's Cave. How the operators would reach the loadstone is not described by Swift. It certainly would not be easy. Although one end of the load stone would extend downward nine feet, half the length of the stone, the closest approach to the floor of the cave would be thirteen feet. When resting horizontally in its neutral position both ends of the stone would be twenty-two feet up.
 

Refer to the illustration. Note that I gave a copy of Swift's book to an artist and asked him to draw the central chamber as he understood it from Swift's description. The illustration is his interpretation. From the other reports we know the "four adamantine feet" were one solid pillar through the central chamber. Wary of the immense size of this interior chamber, the artist made the human figures larger than man-size. When I queried him about their size he said they were of "heroic" dimensions.

 

 

 

We must consider the contemporary reports Swift may have drawn upon. They provide insight into the level of technology of his day, and the level at which explanations were offered by our space visitors. He could not be given information beyond the range of concepts available to him in the context of his times. Swift's celestial sources probably drew upon technology then available to the general public. Naturally we shall find parallels with the work of Gilbert and others. How can parallels be avoided if Swift is discussing mechanisms based on magnetics? But Swift himself is not so simple; he is adroit in his use of earthly sources. He not only uses them to provide an explanation; he also uses them to provide a cover for his secret, a means of allusion which appears satirical while still providing real information. What better way to suggest borrowing from Gilbert than to use Gilbert's dimensions for the oblong loadstone?
 

If Swift was informed about the mode of propulsion, how would it have been explained to him? The operators could not invoke electronic terms as we use them today, but they could offer descriptions of the working of loadstones. The science of magnetics had developed to some extent, was popular among both scientists and lay people, and was prevalent in literature. We should expect that Swift, a knowledgeable individual, would have some idea of the function of magnets, their polarities, their diminishing strength with distance, and possible interaction with the earth's magnetic field. These concepts would not have been foreign to him.
 

Work on electrics was far less advanced, with the notion of electronic charge still in the future. (Benjamin Franklin was still probing electric charge through the display of lightning nearly a hundred years later.) It would have been difficult for the operators (astronomers) to explain the propulsion mechanism in terms of magnetic fields generated from electron flow. It would have been difficult also to explain how electronic charges could be accumulated in storage devices, moved from one place to another, and manipulated to control the direction and strength of a magnetic field.
 

Consider the description Swift gives:
 

The declivity of the upper surface, from the circumference to the centre, is the natural cause why all the dews and rains which fall upon the island, are conveyed in small rivulets towards the middle, where they are emptied into four large basins, each of about half a mile in circuit, and two hundred yards distant from the centre. 

 

If the operators wished to impress upon Swift the concept of electronic storage they might very well have used the analogy of water flow. That analogy is used prevalently today to explain electron flow to neophytes in electronic schools. Dew or rain falling upon surfaces would be like electrons striking collector plates in a vacuum tube, or collector plates on the surfaces of flying craft. When water droplets come together they form a trickle of flow in a small rivulet to a basin which serves as a 'water accumulator'. Electrons striking collector plates would flow in a trickle toward a storage device, 'accumulator', or 'battery'. In fact, the word trickle is used in the electronics industry today for a 'trickle charge', and so on.
 

The remarks by Swift on the dews and the rains suggests the operators attempted to explain certain features of the propulsion system. Otherwise he would not have included the remark. They may have presented discussion which offered an elementary explanation of charge accumulation without tying it directly to the loadstone.
 

How very curious that Swift could include a specific item and make it appear as part of a fiction. But when it is compared against the modern reports it takes on an altogether different cast. The basins for the dews and the rains as charge accumulators are an example; the loadstone as a simulation of a sophisticated magnetic propulsion is another.
 

The mechanism of propulsion is magnetic, as far as we are able to understand. A polar device running vertically in the center of the craft appears to be an integral part of the structure. Swift calls it 'the greatest curiosity.'
 

The word 'magnet' comes from the ancient Greek 'ho Magnese lithos', the 'stone of Magnesia.' Magnesia was a town in ancient Anatolia near the Aegean Sea where iron ores with magnetic properties were commonly found.
 

Adamski says they draw on Nature's forces for propulsion but they did not explain how this is done. Fry, on the other hand, says they use any number of energy sources locally available to develop high density electronic charge. He called the storage mechanism a differential accumulator, a 'storage battery.' A control mechanism, not explained to him, permitted flow of vast quantities of electrons in two rings near the top and bottom of the pole that runs vertically through the craft. Once again we see Swift using his satirical ingenuity. Adamski states they can reverse the poles of the magnetic field merely by pushing a button. Swift says that the loadstone is so finely balanced that the weakest hand can turn it.
 

A loadstone of the size he describes would have considerable mass. It is eighteen feet long, and nine feet across at its widest point. With the shape of a weaver's shuttle this would constitute a mass of perhaps five hundred cubic feet. If the loadstone were made of iron its weight would be in excess of eighty tons. Obviously this considerable mass could not be turned by the weakest hand, no matter how finely balanced, simply because of mass inertia. Large flywheels, even if well oiled, are difficult to start because of the inertia; once started they are difficult to stop. Therefore, it appears that Swift's is attempting to describe the reversal of the magnetic field by the 'weakest hand' 'merely by pushing a button.'
 

Adamski remarks that the 'condensers' accept static electricity sent to them from the magnetic pole; he does not say the charge goes from the 'condensers' to the pole. Does the magnetic pole pick up charge from the surrounding environment to send it to the 'differential accumulators?' If the pole has magnetic polarity it would effect the movement of electrons in the vicinity of the craft. Relative motion between an electron and a magnetic field cause the electron to be impelled along a certain path by well-defined physical laws. If the magnetic field of the craft extends outward it may cause electrons nearby to be carried around the periphery of the craft to collector plates, and thence to the charge accumulators. From there the electrons can be controlled to produce electric currents and associated magnetic field for control of flight. In this manner the craft might be self-sufficient, pulling in electronic charge from the atmosphere, and using the accumulated charge to produce the intense magnetic fields. However, this is not a perpetual motion device. It acquires energy from the surrounding atmosphere.
 

According to Fry the charge accumulator is located internal to the craft. The electrons picked up from the environment must be brought to this charge accumulator from the collectors. Adamski's three ball condensers are not the charge accumulators but the collecting devices. Adamski says there were three such devices on each disk craft, but the account by Swift suggests there may be four. Perhaps different designs have either. A photograph of a disk with four 'cavities' is shown in the accompanying Figure.
 

As Adamski and Fry both report, the control mechanism for this function is not explained.
 

An outstanding feature of many reports, captured on photographs of celestial craft, is a funnel of light which extends below the craft. Witnesses often confuse this light with the craft itself; they see the odd shape as one entity. If intense fields surround the craft the atmosphere in the immediate vicinity might be ionized to produce a glow enveloping the craft. If the vibrating magnetic field is more intense near the poles, toward the center top and bottom, the air immediately above or below 

the poles might be ionized farther away from the craft, extending upward and downward to produce the shape of a funnel. Tearing electrons from the atomic orbits of air molecules in the neighborhood of a craft might be one method by which the craft accumulate electronic charge. The ionized molecules then spread out until they return to an equilibrium state in the surrounding atmosphere.

 

(There is a possibility of lasing action on molecules in the immediate vicinity of the craft, with electrons being excited out of their normal orbits, and producing light when they relapse back into those orbits.)
 

The report by Villas-Boas presents a more graphic picture of the central column, with a taper from top and bottom toward a more narrow middle. While he was an uneducated farmer he recognizes that the central column is more than decorative; he suggests that it may support the roof. Villas-Boas did not experience flight of which he was aware; neither were any explanations offered on the operation of the craft or the function of any of its constituent parts.
 

The tapering suggests that the central column is one piece with the shell of the craft. In fact, Swift mentions that the hoop and its feet are one continued piece with the adamantine bottom of the island.
 

This shape is like a doughnut, with the central column forming the hole of the doughnut, and the outside perimeter of the craft forming the exterior of the doughnut. Technically this is called a toroid. This shape is ideal for forming a magnetic field, and is used widely in our present electronics technology. Electrons flowng around the windings of a toroid create a magnetic field with the poles extending upward and downward from the hole of the toroid.
 

According to Fry's account the electrons do not flow around the perimeter of the craft, but in two force rings located near the top and bottom of the craft. This permits changing the attitude of the craft, as well as the magnitude of its field. Fry sketched the small craft in which he was a passenger. However, the design of a small remote controlled craft may be different from a large disk.
 

Other explanations exist of Fry's force rings. The remote controlled craft may have been designed to avoid placing the force rings at the mid-point of the craft. Or, they may have been used for refinement of control in attitude and direction.
 

Again we should regard the difficulty of informing Swift at higher technical levels of electron flow and electronic production of magnetic fields. He would be limited to loadstones as a means of explaining the flight mechanism. Although there was a limit to Swift's understanding there is also a limit to our understanding.
 

Swift was provided with other items of information that can now be compared against the modern reports. Nicolson and Mohler noted the simple 'exaggeration of Gilbertian theory' when they described the limitations on movement of the Flying Island:
 

This island cannot move beyond the extent of the dominions below, nor can it rise above the height of four miles. 

 

This remark is reflected in Adamski:  
 

As the pilot mentioned the words "extended trip" I wondered if this ship could travel between the planets without the aid of a carrier ship. This he disproved, stating that the Scouts are not built for traveling in outer space. 

 

There are sound technical reasons for limitations on movement. If the craft is propelled by interaction with the Earth's magnetic field the design may be useful only where there is sufficient magnetic field available. Outer space may not have fields strong enough to control flight. As they ascend into the atmosphere the magnetic field of the Earth weakens, thus limiting the altitude to which they can control flight.
 

When Swift says they cannot move beyond the extent of the dominions below he could easily be referring to the extent of the dominions of the Earth, although his satirical framework suggests the dominions of Balnibarbi.
 

Still another limitation may be involved. If air molecules are used to strip electrons and thus acquire energy the density of the air may be important. Rarified atmospheres may not provide sufficient energy to rise above certain heights. Swift says this is four miles.
 

Following is Swift's description of the motion of the island which shows a zig-zag, tacking, or flutter motion. Refer to the copy of his illustration.
 

To explain the manner of its progress, let AB represent a line drawn cross the dominions of Balnibarbi, let the line cd represent the loadstone, of which led d be the repelling end, and c the attracting end, the island being over C; let the stone be placed in the position cd with its repelling end downwards; then the island will be driven upward obliquely towards D. When it is arrived at D, let the stone be turned upon its axle till its attracting end points towards E; where if the stone be again turned upon its axle till it stands in the position EF, with its repelling point downward, the island will rise obliquely towards F, where by directing the attracting end towards G, the island may be carried to G, and from G to H, by turning the stone, so as to make its repelling extremity point directly downwards. And thus by changing the situation of the stone as often as there is occasion, the island is made to rise and fall by turns in an oblique direction, and by those alternate risings and fallings (the obliquity being not considerable) is conveyed from one part of the dominions to the other. 

 

In the usual manner we can interpret this passage as a satire on scientific jargon. The technicalities of description are typical of those found in reports on scientific experiments in Swift's day.
 

On the other hand the passage describes the flutter motion so often observed in disk craft. When Bernard Miserey saw a disk drop from a cigar-shaped craft it swayed or wobbled before it took off in rapid flight.
 

However, Swift probably had a different idea in mind. Swift says that by alternate risings and fallings the island is conveyed from one part of the dominions to the other. Swift stresses the obliquity of motion. This implies that the disk craft cannot move exactly parallel to the surface of the earth but must have motion not directly parallel to the magnetic lines of force of the planet. Thus the passage can be understood also as an attempt by Swift to provide technical details on the conditions of flight imposed by interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.
 

Note that the axle of the loadstone can be moved circularly around the groove of the adamantine hoop. With freedom to move in both the horizontal and vertical directions the ends of the loadstone can be made to point in any direction around a full sphere.
 

It may help to summarize the parallels among the several reports.

 

1) A central chamber: Swift, Adamski, Villas-Boas.

2) A central pole: Adamski, Fry, Villas-Boas. Swift does not describe a pole extending from floor to ceiling but his structure is central to the Flying Island.

3) Magnetic control of motion: Swift, Adamski, Fry.

4) Polarity reversals or changes: Swift, Adamski, Fry.

5) Limitations on movement: Swift, Adamski.

6) Collector devices: Swift, Adamski, Fry.

7) Electronic currents for generation and control of magnetic field: Adamski, Fry.

8) No sensation of movement: Swift, Adamski, Fry.