CHAPTER 45

OTHER LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE

Most of the words previously discussed were fairly obvious. They were identified from similarities in sound, and by tracing etymologies in European historic sources and meaning through Hebrew dictionaries. In fact, my ability to recognize them depended upon those phonetic similarities.
 

In many of those examples we saw transformation and adaptation from the Hebrew root structure to a practical European environment, not merely a borrowing of words to specific applications.
 

Other important elements showed themselves in tracing linguistic examples. One was in the loss of affixes, leading or trailing syllables, illustrated by awface/face and awshame/shame. Another was in the form of phonemes, illustrated by the gutturals, and European evolution away from those. German nacht became English night, licht became light. This is attested in many biblical names: Akher to Aher, Bakhureem to Bahurim, Khaggai to Haggai, Khobab to Hobab, and so on. A third difficulty was in the eastern Indo-European manner of attaching sibilants to cause confusion on postulated IE roots, and hence, failure to recognize the Semitic connections.
 

Still another is evolution of families of words in the Semitic, and the manner of application which we might find foreign to our Indo-European linguistic habits. We saw that the Hebrew rawvaw7301 provided the source for river and ravine, those places that are watered abundantly. Another root with the "rah" phoneme, yawraw (3384), means "to throw," "shoot," "cast," or "pour," in the sense of throwing, shooting or casting water from the sky. Hosea 6:3 has "as the spring rains that water (yoreh) the earth." Deut 11:14 uses the same word in "the early rain and the later rain (yoreh)." A more inflected form is found in Job 37:11, "Also by watering (yatreekha) the thick cloud . . ."
 

Latin rigere means "to water," "to irrigate." This is related to the Teutonic words which led to English rain: Old English rein, Old Saxon regan, Old Norse regn, and Gothic rign. In all of these, from the Hebrew rawvaw and yawraw, to the Latin rigere, to the Teutonic forms, we see the "rah" or "ree" phoneme.
 

The YAW prefix shows in other Hebrew words. Hawlawkh1980 has multiple applications, including "to go," "walk," "proceed," "depart," "go about," "walk to and fro," "exercise," and so on. Yawlawk3212 means "to go," "to journey." Gen 13:17 has "Arise, walk (hithhawlakh) through the land . . ." Jer 3:17 reads ". . . neither shall they walk (yelku) . . ."

In the Teutonic languages the predecessors of the word walk had meaning different from those we recognize in this English word today.

Old English wealcan = "to roll or toss."

Middle High German walcan = "to knead, to roll (paste) in the hands," and (rarely) "to move about."

Old Norse valca = "to drag about," "to torment," "to wallow."
 

OED comments that: "It is remarkable that to the end of the Old English period the sense of the strong verb was 'to roll,' and that from the beginning of the Middle English period it was 'to move about, travel.'
 

OED offers an explanation for this remarkable shift in meaning. They propose that there became current in this period a colloquial use, and that the old meanings quickly disappeared in written works to be immediately replaced by the new applications. This again demonstrates strange transformations taking place in English which revert to Hebrew sounds and meanings. The word walk has all the phonetic elements of Hebrew hawlakh or yawlak. They are "w," "l," and "k," and in the

same phonetic order. (The guttural kh already went to the hard k in Hebrew.) The wide application of the Hebrew words could easily have permitted their introduction into the Teutonic languages with related meanings as we see them in the historical record.
 

We come now to a set of far more interesting and curious yaw words.
 

Yawkheed3173
Yawlad3205
Yaldaw3207
 

Brown, Drive and Briggs offer definitions for yawkheed = "one," "only one," and "solitary." In Aramaic and Arabic it also was used as "solitary." In Gen 22:2 the phrase translated "thy son, thine only son" is binka yahkheedka. The identical phrases and translation are offered in Gen 22:12,16. In Jer 6:26 the phrase yehbel yawkheed is translated "as for an only son." In Amos 8:10 yawkheed is again translated as "only son." In Prov 4:3 yawkheed is translated as "an only child." In Judges 6:34 is the phrase hea yawkheedah, "his only child." In this case yawkheed had the female application.

 

OED states the English kid is a Middle English adaptation of Old Norse kith. It is found in German kitz and Old High German kizzin. In Germany it was applied to the young of a roe-dear during its first year. In England it meant the young of a goat. Later it was used for human children. The origins are unknown. This is another illustration of English reversion to Hebrew phonetics and meaning.
 

Brown, Driver and Briggs show the definition of yawlad as "bear, bring forth, and beget." The word is found in Aramaic, Arabic and Assyrian aladu. As a noun B-D-B offer translation as "offspring, child." With a slight vowel change to yeled it is translated as "child, son, boy and youth." It is found in numerous passages, including Gen 21:8,14, Exod 2:3,6, I Chron 20:6, and so on.
 

OED states that the origin of English lad, in Middle English as ladde, is unknown. It rejects a suggestion that it derived from the last syllable of the Gothic juggalauths = "young man," on grounds both of phonology and meaning.
 

Brown, Driver and Briggs show the definition of yaldaw as "girl," or "damsel." It is found in Gen 34:6, Joel 4:3, and so on.
 

OED shows daughter as a common Teutonic word, pronounced mostly the same way since ancient times. It has cognates in Sanskrit duhitar, Old Slavonic dusti, and Lithuanian dukte. Etymologists propose origins in an ancient Indo-European root *daugh found in Sanskrit duh- = "to milk." However, the curious parallels with yawkheed = "kid," and yawlad = "lad," now make such proposal suspect. This word may be from the original ancient Semitic source which lies behind both the IE and recent Semitic languages.
 

The following list shows words culled from the Hebrew dictionary of Strong's Exhaustive Concordance and compared against the definitions provided by Brown, Driver and Briggs. The list is not intended to be exhaustive, merely indicative. In certain cases there may be a relationship in phonology and meaning which is not directly descended from a Hebrew word, but which shows the phenomenon of reversion which is so curious.
 

I do not include words previously discussed. I use Strong's phonetic representation for ease of sound recognition.

 

Some Possible Hebrew-English Cognates

Dictionary 
Number

Hebrew
Word

Hebrew Meaning

English
Word

56

awbal

to bewail, lament, mourn

bawl

544

omen

verity, truth

omen

907

bad

to brag or lie, liar

bad

935

bow

to go or come, to bend

bow

944

bool

produce, food, stock

bowl

956

booth

to lodge overnight, a tent

booth

1104

behlah

a gulp, devouring, swallowing up

belly

1116

bawmaw

an elevation, height, high place

boom

1341

gay

haughty, proud

gay

1342

gawaw

to mount up, to rise

go

1361

gawbah

be lofty, great height

gable

1745

doomaw

to be dumb, silence, death

dumb

1826

dawmaw

to be dumb, astonished, be quiet

dumb

1843

dayah

knowledge, opinion

idea

1846

dawak

to be extinguished, to expire, put out

dark

1856

dawkar

to stab, pierce

dagger

1876

dawshaw

to sprout, spring

dash

1921

hawdar

to swell up, be high, proud

haughty

2040

hawras

to pull down, destroy, break

harass

2042

hawrawr

to loom up, a mountain

horror

2251

khawbat

to knock out, beat

combat

2254

khawbal

to wind tightly, bind

hobble

2266

kheber

a society, a spell, enchantment

habit

2283

khawgaw

to revolve, vertigo

cog

2346

khomaw

to join, a wall of protection

home

2348

khofe

to cover, a cove

cove

2356

khore

cavity, socket, hole

core

2363

khoosh

to hurry, be eager

gush

2370

khazaw

to gaze, to dream

gaze

2397

khawkh

a ring, chain, hook

hook, hawk

2441

khake

in the sense of tasting, palate, mouth

cake

2456

khawlaw

to be sick, diseased

choler

2480

khawlet

to snatch at, catch

collet, collar

2483

kholee

malady, disease

colic

2541

khawmotse

violent, a robber, oppressed

commotion

2580

khane

graciousness, kindness, favor

kind

2654

khawfates

to incline, have pleasure, desire

covet

2672

khawtsab

to cut, carve, hew, split

stab

2673

khawtsaw

to cut or split in two, divide

saw

2681

khawtseer

a court or abode

court

2710

khawkak

to hack, engrave, inscribe

hack

2729

khawrad

to shudder, to fear, be afraid
but also, and more naturally 

horrid
coward

2734

khawraw

to glow, grow warm, fret

care

2786

khawrak

to grate the teeth, gnash

crack

2814

khawshaw

to hush, be quiet, hold peace

hush

2954

tawfash

to be thick, stupid, fat

tough

2963 - 2965

tawraf
tehref
tawrawf

to pluch or pull, rend in pieces
something torn, fragment,
freshly torn off

tear,
tare,
torn

2973

yawal

be slack, foolish, dote

yaw, yawl

3001

yawbashe

be ashamed, disappointed, confused

abashed

3213

yawlel

to howl, yell

yell

3259

yawad

to fix upon, agree, assemble

add

3897

lawkhak

to lick, lick up

lick

3947

lawkakh

to take, bring, carry away

lug

3992

mawar

be bitter, be painful, fret

mar

4055

made

extent, height, measure, armour, clothes

made

4110

mawhalawl

fame, praise

hail

4116, 4118

mawhar 

mawhare

be liquid, flow easily, rush headlong 

hurrying, quickly, speedily

hurry

4215

mesawreh

a scatterer, north wind

misery

4334

meeshore

to level, a plain, straightness, equity

measure

4376

mawkar

to sell, to surrender

market

4394

milloo

a fulfilling, a setting, consecration

mileau

4406

millaw

a word, command, discourse

law

4551

massaw

a missile, a quarry, dart

missile

4604

mahal

treachery, sin, falsehood, trespass

malice

4716

mak

a melting, putridity, rottenness, stink

muck

4758

mareh

a view, an appearance, a shape, vision

mirror,
mirage

4784

mawraw

be bitter, rebel, grievious, provoke

morose

4916

mishlawkh

a sending out, dismissal

mission

4995

naw

a harshness, tough, uncooked flesh

knaw

5024

nawbakh

to bark

bark

5048

neghed

a front, part opposite, counterpart, other side

negate

5117

nooakh

to rest, settle down, dwell, stay

nook

5205

need

motion (of the lips or hands), moving to and fro

knead

5263

nawsas

to wane, be sick, faint

nauseous

5307

nawfal

to fall (wide application)

fall

5494

soot

coverning, clothing

suit

5606

sawfak

satisfaction, be enough, suffice

suffice

5620

sar

peevish, heavy, sad

sore

5627 
5637

sawraw
sawrar

apostacy, crime, remission
to turn away, backsliding

sorry
sorrow

5707

ayd

a witness, a recorder

aid

5750

ode

iteration, continuance, repeat, more

ode

5844

awtaw

to wrap, cover, veil, clothe

attire

5942

illee

high (in comparison), upper

elite

6006

awmas

to load, impose a burden

amass

6031

awnaw

looking down, browbeating, depress, afflict

annoy

6168

awrak

to set in a row, arrange, put in order

rack

6186

awraw

to be bare, empty, destitute

arrid

6267

atteek

removed, antique, ancient

attic,
antique

6284

pawaw

to puff, blow away

puff

6331

poor

to crush, break, bring to nought

poor

6387

pak

a flask, box, vial

pack

6438

pinnaw

an angle, a pinnacle, corner, tower

pinnacle

6471

pahmaw

to stroke, to beat regularly, agitate

pummel

6527

pawrat

to scatter words, prate, chant

prate,
prattle

6529

peree

fruit, bough, reward

berry

6530

pereets

violent, a tyrant, destroyer, robber

pirate

6962

koot

to cut off, detest, be grieved

cut

6963

kole

to call aloud, a voice or sound

call

7121

kawraw

to call out, cry

cry

6991, 
3615

kawtal
kawlal

to cut off, put to death, kill
to end, to cease, be finished

kill
kill

7270

rawgal

to walk along, be a talebearer, slander

regale

7280

rawgah

to toss violently, break, divine

rage

7311, 
7315

room
rome

to be high, to raise, elevation, haughty
elevation, aloft, on high

room
roam

7328

rawz

to attentuate, hide, mystery, secret

ruse

7378

roob

to toss, grapple, wrangle, controversey

rub, 
rub(barb)

7386

rake

empty, worthless, emptied

rake (worthless fellow)

7392

rawkab

to ride, carry

cab

7451

rah

bad, evil, grief, harm

raw

7477

rawal

to reel, to brandish, shake

reel

7494

rahash

vibration, uproar, commotion, rushing

rash

7742

sooakh

to muse pensively, meditate

sulk

7811

sawkhaw

to swim, inundate

soak

7896, 
7897

sheeth

to place (wide application), apply, lay up, set
a dress, attire

sheath

7953

shawlaw

extracting, to draw out, remove, take away

shell

8131

senay

to hate, enemy, foe, odious

sin

8173

shawah

to look upon, fondle, stare

show

8242

sak

a mesh, sacking, bag

sack

8279

sehred

scribing awl, scribed line

serrate

8446

toor

to meander, guide, search out, spy

tour

8524

tawlal

to pile up, elevate, eminent

tall

8537

tome

completeness, prosperity, full, perfect

tome

8539

tawmah

to be in consternation, be amazed, wonder

temerity

8543

temole

ago, time since, yesterday, before time

time

8639

tardaymaw

a lethargy, trance

tardy

8643

terooaw

clamor, battle-cry, alarm, loud noise

terror

8651

terah

a door, palace, gateway

terrace