CHAPTER 43

A GREAT LIGHT SHALL SHINE

Two Hebrew roots served as the base for a large array of words which arose in the European languages. The two roots are closely related to one another. They are or (oor)215, and ar (aur)5782. The first means "to become light," "to shine." In the Pi'el form this root is ier "to air." The second (5782) means "to awake." The two roots gave us such words as air, ear, hour, early, ore, arise, rear, and year.
 

These roots and their derivatives came into English by both the Mediterranean Romance languages and the northern European Teutonic languages. Or (oor) has many different applied meanings expressing luminosity, illumination, brightness, glory, revelation, clarity, happiness, and prosperity, as well as lightning, the sun, the morning, and the break of day.
 

The following tabulations and lists show the details of the root words, the sense and meanings found in the Bible, their inflections, and etymologies for the European and English words.
 

Several factors become evident in examination of the tables and lists.  

  1. The Hebrew roots are found as the base for European words, not the highly inflected Hebrew forms. This fact provides strong evidence that the elemental meaning of the root was introduced into the European languages. These did not come through commercial or incidental contact. In fact, they appear to be intelligent formulations, from a source with highly persuasive powers, imposed upon the respective cultures. This does not mean that purity was maintained, but rather that the essential concept behind the root was used in many different applications.

  1. Many of the modern English forms are phonetically close to the original Hebrew roots and do not contain the inflectional variations found in the older Teutonic and Romance languages. They are more simple representations of the basic meaning of the Hebrew verbs. Either the original root sounds were maintained through many centuries to carry into modern English, and not recognized by etymologists, or there has been an evolution back to the original phonetics. I illustrated this process above with no, nod, moat, and mock.


  2.  
  3. "S" and "Z" phonemes which appear in Gothic, and assumed by linguists to be more original Teutonic, are a phenomenon associated with eastern Europe, and are not the source of postulated original primitive Teutonic stems. This sibilant addition is common in Greek, and caused much trouble for students of antiquity in their attempt to trace the word Phoenix. It is found in the Egyptian god Osar who was known in Greek as Osiris, (H)or became Horus, Yeshua became Jesus. The phenomenon probably is Indo-European but restricted geographically. (The Egyptian god (H)Or is from the same or root, meaning source of light, evidence of very ancient Semitic influence in Egypt.)


  4.  
  5. The two Hebrew roots or and ar are obviously related to one another in meaning and phonetics, but are separated in dictionary classifications because of the initial Hebrew gutturals aleph and ayin. Modern linguists classify these two gutturals as distinct consonants, but the evidence suggests the two roots either were once not so separate, or that the constructive intelligence who designed the root system intentionally distinguished between the two forms by the two gutturals. Where and how the gutturals came into the Semitic languages to create these differences is beyond the scope of this work.


Partial Conjugation of the Hebrew Verb "Or"

Past

Future

Present

Imperative

Person & 
Number

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

 

Kal form: or: "to become light," "to shine"

I (we)
You (m)
You (f)
He
(They)
She

ortee
ortah
ort
or

orah

ornu
ortem
orten

oru

a'or
ta'or
ta'oree
ya'or

ta'or

na'or
ta'oru
ta'ornah
ya'oru

ta'ornah

or
orah
oreem
oroth

or
oree
oru
ornah

Pi'el form: eir: "to air"

I (we)
You (m)
You (f)
He
(They)
She

iartee
iartah
iart
ier

irah

iarnu
iartem
iarten

iroo

a'aer
t'aer
t'aree
y'aer

t'aer

n'aer
t'aru
t'aernah
y'aru

t'aernah

m'aer
m'aereth
(m'arah)
m'areem

m'aroth

aer
aree
aru
aernah

Pu'al form: uar: "to be aired"

I (we)
You (m)
You (f)
He
(They)
She

uartee
uartah
uart
uar

urah

uarnu
uartem
uarten

uru

a'uar
t'uar
t'uaree
y'uar

t'uar

n'uar
t'uru
t'uarnah
y'uru

t'uarnah

m'uar
m'uereth
(m'uarah)
m'uareem

m'uaroth

 

 

 

European Cognates of Hebrew Or and Aer

TIME 
"Morning light," or boker, I Sam 14:36 
"Break of day," ye'or, II Sam 2:32

Hebrew: or, ora


 

Greek  ora

season,
time of day,
hour

Latin hora = hour

Old French ore
Italian ora
Spanish
hora

hour

 

Hebrew: or, ar, aer


 

Greek eri = early in the morning

Gothic air
Old High  aer
German  er
Old Norse 
ar

 early,
at an early hour,
the first part of the morning,
near the beginning of the day

Old English ar = (ar + ly + early)

 

MANNER, APPEARANCE 
"Light and gladness," ora, Esther 8:16 
"Light of countenance," or Psalm 4:6

GLORY, HONOR 
"Glorious," n'or, Psalm 76:4

Hebrew: aer, orah
The following forms appear to have developed from the Pi'el = "to air." 
Greek aer, aura  =  to blow, breath, breeze
Latin aer, aura  =  spirit, manner, countenance
Old French air  = aspect, air
English air = spirit emanation,
distinctive quality or character,
as in "putting on airs."
 

Hebrew: ora, aer

 Old High German era
Old Norse eir
Old Saxon era
Old English ar
English ore, are

These forms all mean "to regard," "esteem," "value," "honor," "glory," "reverence."


 
 

ATMOSPHERE

HEARING

PLACE

Hebrew aer = "to air" 

Greek aer
Latin aer
Italian aria
Spanish aire
French air
English
air

Hebrew ora, aer = "to air" 

Latin auris
OHG ora, horren
ON eyra, heyra
OS ora, horean
OE eare, hieran
English ear, hear 

Eastern European forms have "s":

Goth auso, Greek ous, Lith ausis, OSl ucho

Hebrew aeree = "airy place" 

Greek aeree
Latin aeri, area
English area = Spot of level ground 
aerie, = Nest of a bird of prey 
aerial, = Of the air 
arena = Open place

Other cognates:
 

English year is found in Old Saxon and Old High German as yar, Gothic yer, but the more direct Hebrew form is found in Old Norse as ar, with Swedish and Danish ar, and aar. Other forms are in Zend yare and Greek oros.
 

English era has a curious history. OED says that "The chronological use of the word appears to have originated in Spain, where (as also in southern Gaul and North Africa) it is found in inscriptions prefixed to the number of years elapsed since 38 BC, the selection of which as an initial year has not been satisfactorily explained. Isadore of Seville in the 6th century said that this was the year in which Augustus first ordered the taxation of Spain." Thus we have historic evidence for use of the Hebrew (perhaps Puni) word at that early date.
 

Another curious form is found in Latin aurum = gold, that which shines? The Danish denomination for money is ora. English parallel in ore creates a question of the actual (or confused) origin. Western European parallels are in OHG er, ON eir, OS er, and Old English ora. The eastern European forms once again display the "s" sibilant: Latin aes = brass, Gothic aiz = brass, and as far away as Sanskrit ayas = metal, suggesting a more ancient influence on the "s" forms.
 

Ore is also an old Teutonic word for a fine kind of wool. It is parallel with Greek orion = wool, and may be the original meaning of the Orion stellar constellation. Old English ore also meant "beginning," "origin," and "front," equivalent to the "break of day."
 

Latin ora meant "shore," "coast," perhaps from the sense of the "beginning of land."
 

Other Latin forms are found in ornah and ornare, directly from the Hebrew inflection, which became English ornament. English adorn is from Latin ad + ornare, and aurora from Latin aurora, the rising light of morning.

 

The Hebrew Root Ar


The sister verb, ar, with the initial ayin, follows the same pattern of inflections as or, but does not contain the Pu'al form. The Kal imperatives in the ayin are pronounced the same as in the aleph, except for the switch in gutturals. The Pi'el in the ar also has a doubled "r."
 

Many of the or forms take on meanings which are close to the ar forms. For example, or boker in I Sam 14:36 is translated as "the morning light," but II Sam 2:32 has ye'or = "break of day." Thus the or verb has wide application, but the ar verb is limited more to personal reaction to the "break of day."
 

The European linguistic evidence shows both the or and ar forms. If the two Hebrew roots were the source for European words we are not now able to readily distinguish their respective influence. The tabulations show this difficulty.
 

Some of the biblical words deriving from ar are:
 
 

Joel 3:12, yaralu = "awakened."
Isa 42:12, yayeer = "stir up."
Isa 41:2, h'eer = "raised up."
Job 31:29, hitorarte = "lifted up."
Isa 10:26, orer = to awaken, arouse

er: waking, watchful
eree: watchful
eran: watchful
eer: a watching
eerah: watch
eru: a watching
eru: a watchman


 

In the first waking of the morning one is oor: "bare, naked." In Hebrew a derived meaning is found in words for "skin," "hide," "leather."
 

An example of a Latin word which comes out of the Hebrew ar is ex-oriri = "to get up." This is found in Isa 10:26, orer, "to awaken," or "arouse." The Teutonic words arise and rear come from this form: Gothic ur-risan, OHG forms ur- ar- ir-risen, and Old Saxon arisan. No related forms are reported beyond the Teutonic; etymologists credit these words to Indo-European origins because of the forms without the ar prefix. They view ar as a modifying prefix, but we now see the Hebrew influence.
 

Another curiosity is found in English arable. It is from Latin arabilis = "to plough." It is found in Old English earian, OHG erran, Old Norse erya, Gothic aryan, Irish airim, Latin ar, Greek aro, all of which mean "to till the soil." Were these considered acts of "awakening the soil" and "lifting it up to the light of day."
 

Other words come from these two Hebrew roots. The following is a partial list.

 

Aureate: golden, gold colored, brilliant, splendid.
Aurelai: shine like gold, yellow, golden.
Aureola: golden, celestial (shining) crown.
Auric: pertaining to gold, that which glows or gleams.
Aerate: to blend with air.
Aerial: airy, thin or attenuated air, etherial.
Auricle: Latin "external ear."
Oracle: a divine speech or pronouncement.
Orient: from Latin oriens = "rising sun, east."
Orifice: from Latin or + facere = "to make a mouth."
Origin: from Latin oriri = the act or fact of springing from some thing.
 

Plus many, many more.

 

The Surname Moyer

 

When Europe was converted to Christianity it began using mostly Bible names for given names. Few Keltic or Teutonic names still exist. One of those is Thurston, from Thor's Stone.
 

The surnames of Europe would be an intriguing area of investigation, since many may have retained their original meanings, but beyond the scope of this book. However, one exactly familiar is my personal surname.
 

The gerunds of the Hebrew verbs, those words taken in systematic manner from verbs but functioning as nouns, have four forms. From or these are:
 

b'or = "in becoming light,"
k'or = "on becoming light,"
l'or = "to become light," and
m'or = "from becoming light."
 

In the Pi'el these are:
 

b'aer = "in becoming aired,"
k'aer = "on becoming aired,"
l'aer = "to become aired," and
m'aer = "from becoming aired."
 

From ar these are:
 

b'ur = "in awakening,"
k'ur = "on awakening,"
l'ur = "to become awake," and
m'ur = "from becoming awake."
 

If we attempt to spell these words in English, and with accent on the last syllable, we might have meyor, meyer, and meyur for the "m" = "from" forms. These are very well known surnames in Europe and carried by descendants who now live widely dispersed in other parts of the world.
 

Golda Maier was a former Prime Minister of the modern state of Israel. She was born in eastern Germany and adopted this name when she moved to Israel. She had good cause; she knew the literal significance. Golda Maier chose this name because of its literal significance. Whether we see or, aer, or ar, the literal significance in Hebrew is "from becoming light," "from becoming aired," or "from becoming awake." A person who carries that name serves others in providing light, fresh air, or awakening.
 

Two supposed ancestors of mine were Hans and Christian Meyer, two brothers living in Pennsylvania Dutch country in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Many students believe the Moyer name is a corruption of Meyer, and indeed, some Meyer family lines did assume the Moyer form. In his last Will and Testament, dated January 18, 1748, Christian Meyer spelled his name Moyer within the text of the Will, but signed it in German as Meyer. In my investigation of lists of passengers coming to this country from Europe, I discovered an Alan Moyer on a German ship in 1684. I also discovered other passenger lists of people coming into this country originally as Moyer and not as Meyer. I also learned that Moyers emigrated from Germany directly into Virginia in the 17th century. Maier, Meier, Meyer, Myer, Mayer, and Moyer are all different spellings and pronunciations of the same name. In the 1860 US Census for Polk Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, the Census Taker spelled all my Moyer ancestors as Meyer, even though ten years earlier and ten years later other Census Takers knew them as Moyer. That man must have been strongly German. So we can see the confusion on the name.
 

In 1977 I met a Jewish man of Yiddish background who asked if I was Jewish. I replied, not to my knowledge. He stated that Moyer was the Yiddish way of pronouncing Meyer. The changes in inflection of the vowel come about because of the accent. With accent on the last syllable the initial vowel is suppressed, as shown in the Hebrew gerund forms. Therefore, it can easily be modified in pronunciation to create Moyer from Meyer. Multiple origins of the Moyer name should not be surprising.