A LIVING RECORD
Evidence for cultural history through language. An introduction.
God kept a living record of ancient planetary transactions through the
mechanism of cultural continuity from generation to generation. Men preserve
social memory through their cultural habits. One path was through folk
tales and myth stories. Another path was through linguistics. By names
on the lands, social honorifics and titles, family names, and through social
habits, we retained remarkable memory from the past. But most of this knowledge
was lost on recent generations because of their contempt for the old days.
Scattered across the face of this globe are innumerable place names. Sometimes the names commemorate outstanding personalities and works of men: Kennedy expressways or Roosevelt dams. Sometimes they denote regions which cannot be identified visually but which define administrative districts: Jefferson counties and Washington states. Other times migrating people carry memory of familiar places into unfamiliar regions: New Jersey and New York. In olden times names were used to denote the centers of important social transactions. Kingston-on-the-Thames was a location on the river Thames in England where the ancient Anglo-Saxon kings were crowned while sitting on a holy stone. Olden people also used names religiously to denote memorable events or important locales: Bethlehem for House of Bread or Bethel for House of God. Some names are very old, dating many centuries before Jesus: Babel is the old Semitic name for Babylon and the traditional site of the infamous tower. Still other names are even older and predate thousands of years before Abraham: Athens, Greece is the modern form of the very ancient Atana.
As time passes, as people migrate, and as one culture replaces another, many older names disappear to be replaced by new ones. However, some names are venerated far more than others and may cling to the lands and in the minds of the onflowing generations for thousands of years. A natural filtering preserves some of the old names which predate human history and all human memory.
Study of these name patterns leads to discovery that those with the
greatest antiquity are found universally across the face of this planet.
These linguistic fossils do not appear to be associated with any one group
of people, any particular culture, or any specific geographical region.
Furthermore, they show a unique feature of containing certain common phonetic
elements, or syllables, which show repeatedly in various combinations.
Even more, the phonetic elements can be identified by literal meaning in
a group of languages which modern scholars refer to as Northwest Semitic,
including Phoenician, Aramaic, Chaldean, and Hebrew.
A person from China might claim that these very ancient names came from
his remote ancestors. But a similar name in the New World might be assigned
to the ancestors of the Maya Indians. People of Europe and the Near East
would believe that similar names belonged to their ancestors also.
I first became aware of this phenomenon when I was studying Latin in
High School. Near my boyhood home in eastern Pennsylvania was the village
of Aquashicola, named after a small creek that flowed through the village.
I was intrigued by the similarity of the initial syllables to aqua,
the Latin word for water. I wondered who had chosen the name, and what
the other syllables might mean. When I inquired my elders told me the name
was of American Indian origin and did not come from Latin. No one seemed
impressed with the fact that the Latin word for water was contained in
this Indian name for a stream of water.
This curiosity did not find explanation for many years until I discovered a book in the public library in Hagerstown, Maryland early in 1971 called The Key, written by an Irishman named John Philip CohaneTK. It was a preliminary study of worldwide geographical and myth names which showed not only that many of the names were related to Semitic languages, but that they were connected also with the gods and folk heros of the ancient past. Cohane did not pretend to a deep study; he covered a wide variety of names to show the universal nature of the phenomenon and left more detailed investigation to later workers.
|THE SAR NAMES|
The following list shows how certain names
correspond to a biblical name familiar to all of us: Sarah, Abraham's wifeTWIG.
Cohane speculated that later Hebrew tribes
migrated to these regions and used the names out of respect for their ancestral
mother. The names in Jordan, Libya and perhaps Iran and Afghanistan might
have seen her influence, yet the names were spread over the entire globe,
from the Americas to Europe, to the depths of Africa, across Asia, and
into the southwest Pacific. If named after Sarah it would imply the Hebrew
name was used alike in those widespread regions. (Sarai was Sarah's original
name, Gen 17:15.) While the names in Washington State and in Brazil might
have been carried by white man, the names were obviously scattered far
beyond any recognized historical migrations. Furthermore, why would Sarah
receive such attention and not Abraham? If anything, their prominence should
be reversed. Few Abrahamic names are known except as carried by white man
in recent historical times. The curiosity increases when we list other
This list contains syllables appended to the
"Sara" name. Numerous other examples could be illustrated.
The latter names are more uncertain. If one
is not expert in all languages, in the traditions of the natives, and in
their histories, one cannot be certain of the origins. We cannot verify
because the meanings may have shifted and because there are no written
In attempt to understand we should keep in
mind that names are not arbitrary sounds, or mere grunts. People use names
which carry meaning -- from outstanding personalities, memorable events,
or other significance, if only Blue mountains and Red rivers.
It is possible to draw out the meaning of many of the old names and to determine the origins of this exceptional phenomenon through means other than historic linguistics, although we may not be able to determine their true antiquity.
Consider significance of the Sara name in Hebrew. It comes from the root verb sarar, "to have dominion." The female form is sara while the male form is sar, denoting human mortals who have dominion through rulership -- kings, queens, princes, and princesses. Sarah received this name because of her prominent position in the parenthood of the Hebrew people. As a place name sarar would suggest dominion or prominence, a literal significance attached to a place, not necessarily associated with a human personality.
Examples of sar names are also found:
As further illustration of why the origins
were Semitic consider the name sar as it was used for titles of
nobility in the past.
The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar carried
this title in his name. The terminal zar, pronounced tsar,
meant king or rulerAHCL. This designation was used by the supreme
ruler of Russia, in his title of Czar, well remembered into the
twentieth century. The form is also found in the Roman title Caesar,
pronounced Kaisar, again used by Teutonic kings down into this century.
Here the form is a combination of Kai with sar. Kai
is found in Hebrew as a preposition or conjunction, meaning "as," "like,"
and so onBDB. The Roman Kaesar was a title which, literally
in Hebrew, could be understood to mean "As a King," or "Like a King." Thus
we see that Semitic designations were used by non-Semitic Indo-European
people, and suggests an influence in the ancient past which is lost to
Other examples of the sar title may
be found in Akkadian myths. Ansar and Kisar, (pronounced
tsar) were children of Lahmu and Lahamu, the first gods to come into beingHT.
Note the similarity of the Akkadian "Kisar" to the Roman "Kaesar."
(The "An" is found in Sumerian and Egyptian myths as the Father god.)
Obviously, some cultural force, at work from remote times, left its imprint many places, but is not now recognized by man.
|THE AQUA NAMES|
Illustration of the sar-sara names is
only one of innumerable examples that can be drawn from across the world.
Consider how aqua is found many placesRHDEL, TK, TWIG.
In North America the aqua forms universally
mean water, or have some relationship to rivers, lakes, streams, and other
bodies of water. The Narragansett Indians used queque as their word
for water, pronounced as quaqua but omitting the initial "a." Obviously
is not limited to the Roman word. Elsewhere people dropped the "k" sound,
or modified it to an "h". Ahue is the old Mexican word for "all
water." Arabians use wah for oasis, where owah-sis, with
the typical "s" ending, is the Greek word borrowed from the Arabs. The
Polynesians of the South Seas used wai as their word for water,
similar to the Hawaiian ua. And, of course, English still retains
this ancient memory with the initial wa in its word for waterRHDEL,
TK, AE. An early Indo-European root word for water was uaOED.
Again we find aqua related to Semitic, and to Hebrew. Eve is the anglicized form of the Hebrew khawa (or khava). The root word means "to live." The causative form means "to give life." Eve was the "life-giver." The singular future tense of khawa is akwa, or aqua, meaning "I shall live"BDB,SEC,AHCL, HV. Application to water is evident; anyone who partakes of water shall continue to live. It would be natural to name water aqua = "I shall live" if its imbibers were devout people, speaking a Semitic tongue closely related to Hebrew, and if they were appreciative of the miracle of water created by God.
|THE WORD "HELLO"|
Another outstanding word, not used as a place
name, nor as a name for a common necessity of life, but as a greeting,
is found from separate regions of the planet. The modern hello (earlier
used widely in English speaking and other European countries comes from
an old Teutonic word. Linguists believe it derives from holon, meaning
"to fetch," as to hail a ferrymanOED. However, other evidence
speaks contrary to this origin. It may be that the proposed old Teutonic
holon derives from halloa.
It was pronounced alloa by the Anglo-Saxons.
Curiously, the same greeting is found on the other side of the planet in
the friendly aloha of the Hawaiian Islands. There it denotes love,
honor, and respectRHDEL.
The Hawaiian greeting is native to those islands;
it was not carried there by English traders. How, then, did the English
and the Hawaiian aloha have such similar sounds in identical application
as greetings? We could postulate that Teutonic traders traveled the world
more than a thousand years before their English descendants, but that hypothesis
does not seem reasonable. We have no evidence for such history.
This problem is further encumbered by the North American Indian Choctaw name for the Thunderbird. It is HelohaNAM. The Thunderbird was a common Indian designation for the Creator. This also is not accidental when we consider that the Hebrew name for God is Eloha, (or Eloah). (The plural form Elohim is found most often in the Bible.) An inflected form of this word is also found in Arabic Allah.
We could claim that the alloa-aloha
greetings were a linguistic coincidence. But when we add the Heloha-Eloha
god names the problem becomes profound. Remnants of social practices show
everywhere, related in some unexplained way to religious attitudes about
existence and creation.
We can postulate a history which would explain
the evidence. At one time the entire planet knew this Semitic name for
God. It was used everywhere. Furthermore, it was used commonly as a means
of designating loyalty. When one person greeted another with Eloah
(or Eloha, Alloa, Aloha and Hello) he was indicating
allegiance to a Creator God in his daily passing. He would show his loyalty
to this God by giving this name to others. The others would respond in
like manner. But those persons were not expressing fear; they were expressing
gratefulness for a God who held concern for his created children. There
was a daily, living demonstration of awareness of a God who cared for them.
The human mortal expressed that care in his greeting. It was a friendly
greeting of love, honor and respect. It is so used yet today in the Hawaiian
The other important feature of this intriguing
phenomenon is the linguistic memory in Hebrew. Somehow, God preserved a
language which clearly reveals those old cultural habits and social customs.
To us, in these latter days, it becomes a source of revelation. Our eyes
are being opened to a power and control from heaven which was not perceivable
to former generations. While many persons might ask for more concrete demonstration,
the evidence is sufficient to bring serious pause, and reflective thought.
How truly unfortunate we lost sense of the meaning of this greeting and direct connection to a living, loving God.
|MANA FROM HEAVEN|
I shall now consider another, more involved,
and far more pervasive example of this ancient Semitic influence upon the
Through the heart of Frederick County, Maryland
flows a river called the Monocacy, commonly pronounced mon-oc-asee.
The name is native American Indian but contains three phonetic elements
which can be identified in Hebrew: mana, oc, and ochi.
As I shall show, this name is made up of three words, mana = "Spirit,"
= "brother," and ochi = "my brother." Mana-oc-ochi coalesced
into the modern Monocacy literally, in Hebrew, means "Spirit brother, my
brother." Coalescing of word elements is common in Hebrew, and is illustrated
by such names as Daniel from Don + El, "Judged by God," Bethel from
Beth + El, "House of God," or Melchizedek from
Malach + Zedek,
"King of Righteousness."
I shall first examine the mana component
of this name, and later go on to the oc components.
Mana is a common word used by
the Bedouin in the Sinai peninsula for a sweet, sticky, honey-like substance
exuding from the tarfa tree, the tamarix gallica mannifera in late
May and JuneBDB. The Egyptian word mannu was used for,
and local residents still regard this substance as, a dew falling from
the sky. On the far side of the globe Australian natives use the word
manna for a secretion of certain species of Eucalyptus, while in France
the Briancon name manna is used for a secretion of the common larch.
In the Calabria region of southern Italy and in Sicily a similar substance
is obtained from incisions in the bark of the manna-ash, the fraxinus
The question is how this word came to be used across the face of the planet in common application to substances exuding from trees, plants, and shrubs, by different people speaking different languages. Certainly, there must have been a common influence somewhere in the distant past which would provide a foundation for such identical word applications.
But this is not the only evidence for a strange
substance called manna. When the wandering Israelites tribes were
short on food they went to Moses for help, Exod 16. He appealed to God,
who then supplied manna, 16:31, which came down from the sky at
night and lay on the ground. In 16:14 it is described as a fine, flake-like
substance which lay as hoarfrost on the ground. In 16:31 it is described
as coriander seed, white, and with a taste like wafers made with honey.
According to Exodus 16:15 the people went to Moses with the question Man hua?, thus asking in Hebrew "What is it?" Cognates of the Hebrew man are found in Arabic man = "Who?," Ethiopic manu = "What?," and late Aramaic man = "What?" From the similarity of the words some persons assume the manna from the sky derived from the man of the Semitic "what" or "who."
The similarity of manna to man
has confused the phonetic and semantic connection between these two different
applications, one as the name for the strange substance, and the other
as the word used for the interrogative. Are they perhaps related in some
Olden people, accustomed to living close to
their sources of food, intimate with nature, and feeding off the land,
would not confuse the exudation of a sticky substance from a shrub plant
with flakes of a fine white substance lying around on the ground. Only
academic scholars, divorced from reality, would make such suggestions.
If the manna from heaven were exudation from shrubs the Exodus account
would have described it that way. Therefore, use of the word manna
must carry a meaning which goes beyond the common application to exudations
from shrubs or plants. It carries a general significance not previously
Research into this word produces highly curious results. The path of etymology is not clear by any meansBDB,SEC,AHCL. Refer to the tabulation. The central concept behind these varied inflections, and their applications, is that of "a part" or a "portion." This Semitic word found manifold uses throughout the world, now buried in the mists of the past.
also had a highly spiritual
significance. The Polynesian tribes of the South Pacific believed that
was a spiritual force or power concentrated in people or objects. Far
away on the American continent the native Indian brave sought this mana,
the divine spirit, during initiation ceremonies into manhood.
The Hopi Indians of Arizona knew Kerwan
and Katchina Mana as the name of the sprouting Maize Spirits, while
Keckamanetowa was the Fox Indian name for the gentle manitou
spirit of the Great Plains. An alternate Fox name, Ketchimanetowa,
meant the Great Spirit. The Algonquin Indians along the St. Lawrence river
knew manitou as a supernatural being who controlled nature, a spirit,
deity, or object with supernatural powers. The Objiwa Indians of the Lake
Superior region also knew manitou as a spirit of god. In the eastern
woodlands Gitche Manitou was known as the All-Father, the Great
SpiritRHDEL, TK, NAM.
The mana connection to spiritual forces
and gods is found elsewhere. Manu was the ancient Egyptian home
of the gods, the regions of the west where the sun setEBD.
Manu was the Appointed One, author
of the ancient Hindu holy law, progenitor of the human race and Creator
of the Universe. According to Hindu tradition a succession of Manus
recreated the earth anew at the end of each of the earth ages. In some
traditions the Manus were known as rulers of the planetsAE,
Manabozho was the American Indian
god of the dawn and the east, commemorative of the great dawn of creation.
He was the common ancestor of the North American Indian tribes, the Creator,
and the preserver of both earth and heaven. He was the intermediary of
the Spirit Manitou during the initiation ceremony of the Indian
brave. The Illinois Indians held Manitou in reverence and awe as
the genius and master of life, the spirit that ruled all thingsRHDEL,
This manna relationship to the gods
is found elsewhere. Manannan mac Lir was the ancient Irish
god of the sea; he was the Outer King of Ireland. Manawydan was
the Welsh god of the sea who dwelt in a place far across the Great Sea.
He was a brother of the mythical Bran, Ernissyen, and Branwyn, and the
second husband of the goddess RhiannanCH.
The mana word, as applied to the gods,
or to spiritual forces, is a stronger demonstration than Eloha.
The word-forms cited here were used in ancient Egypt, India, Polynesia,
North America, Ireland, and Wales. It was found in such diverse people
as Hamitic, Hindu, Polynesian, American Indian and Celtic. Such widespread
and pervasive applications, although coming down to us in distorted myths
and traditions, indicate an influence once covering the globe. The use
must be very ancient, going back to a time when a universal spiritual and
religious influence pervaded the entire planet.
This universal influence is also found in worldwide
Manitoba is a phonetic variation
on Manitowa, a province in central Canada. The word is in Manitoulin
of Lake Huron, and Manitowoc in Wisconsin. The word is found in
Managua (Spirit-Water), Nicaragua, and Manaos, BrazilRHDEL,
TWIG. The name is found many other places:
With addition of another phonetic element,
we find it in such place names as:
Manawa is composed of Mana +
Hawa, literally meaning "Spirit Creator.
There are many Manoa names, in North America,
South America, in the South Seas, and in the Near East. Manoa is
a slightly different spelling of Manawa.
We also find:
Although the words and names, with their literal significance, can be identified today from Hebrew, this does not mean that Hebrew was the origin. By no means. But it does mean that the Hebrew language retains within its vocabulary and linguistic inflections the same patterns as used in very ancient planetary times. As stated in Genesis 11:1 --
Now the whole earth had one language and few words.
Or, as it is stated in the King James Version:
The whole earth was of one language and one speech.
Does this mean the entire planet knew only one language? No. It means that native peoples still spoke their individual tongues. They never lost those tongues. But there was a spiritual influence which was taking them into the use of common word elements and applications. We find traces of that ancient social process in these linguistic comparisons. The olden people did
not forget their native tongues, but they also did
not forget that ancient religious and spiritual influence, no matter how
degraded the memory became.
But something highly disruptive broke that
planetary program. It tore the world asunder. We pay the consequences yet
To recognize how this influence has pervaded
the entire planet consider common English words. In the earlier list I
showed many inflected mana Hebrew forms which find strong parallel
in English. Many is paralleled in Hebrew menay, "counting
or numbered." Numerous mini forms are found in English, such as
minim, minikin, minimize, minion, minish, and so on, all implying smallness,
daintiness, or some small portion. According to linguistic studies the
words go back to Latin minim or minor, from an earlier min,
meaning "smallest or extremely smallOED." Are the English and
Latin min forms unrelated to the Hebrew mini? Or is this
form rooted in some common influence now lost to social memory?
Consider other aspects of this Semitic influence.
Hebrew moneh meant "a counted time," a recurring period of time.
We get our word moon from the Anglo-Saxon mona, identical
in pronunciation to the Hebrew wordRHDEL. The moon was the ancient
measure for the calendar, the means by which people counted time, a recurring
period. Jews still clock their yearly religious calendar by the moon.
The name for the moon in ancient Greek and
Gothic was mena, Lithuanian menu. These phonetic variations
parallel those in the Hebrew word list. In Latin the name for the moon
was mensis, derived from the common Indo-European root, but also
related in some heretofore unidentified manner with the Hebrew mona.
This last word gave rise to many European forms: French mesure,
Spanish mesura, and English measure, all indicating a measure
of time, and then simply measure. This same form led to English mensuration,
and a woman's menstrual period, equal to the cycles of the moon.
The phonetic similarities to the Hebrew word all indicate periods of time,
measurement, and cyclesOED.
The English word many may come from
Anglo-Saxon manig or Gothic manag, but parallels are found
in Irish minic = "abundant," Gaelic minig = "frequent," and
Welsh minich = "often." The English many may have come from
the Semitic via either the Teutonic or Celtic branches of the Indo-European
languages but if so it shows a reversion to the earlier Semitic phonetics
retained in Hebrew menay = "counting or numbering,"OED.
English shows this form again in money.
Although linguists trace this word from French moneie and Latin
the word is clearly similar to the Hebrew words for money,
and mina. Shifts in the vowel sounds could easily give the English
An even greater curiosity of these words is
their worldwide use in related applications. In Mandarin Chinese min
meant humanity. Is the Chinese min unrelated to English man
and the man in human? If these words imply human kind as
a portion of God's created children can we deny association with Hebrew
"to appoint or set apart?"
The spiritual and intellectual features denoted
by these words is not limited to the Polynesian and American Indian mana.
with the characteristic "s" ending, is found in Hindu as the rational faculty
of the mind, the source of genius. In Sanskrit manu meant mind and
appeared in Gothic as manna. Linguists believe these words derive
from an ancient common Indo-European root. According to this view the words
led to both modern man and mind. With phonetic variations
it is found in other Teutonic languages as myne and muni
for "mind, desire, and love." Old Norse munu and Gothic gamunan
meant "to think, remember, or intend." With stronger inflectional change
it is found in Sanskrit mati = "thought." Greek memona meant
"yearning" while Latin memini meant "to remember" and monere
meant "to adviseRHDEL,OED."
All of these words, from the North American
and Polynesian mana, to the Hindu manas and Sanskrit manu,
to the Teutonic manna, show descriptive expressions for spiritual
or mental qualities. If ancient people understood these words as meaning
a portion of the Great Spirit or Great Mind, they had a respectful regard
for the source of all spirit and all mind. The implications of the words,
and their use by ancient people, show a potent and powerful everyday reminder
of man's intimate relationship with God -- a relationship now lost on our
modern secular, confused and godless world.
Obviously, a phenomenon is spread across the
face of this globe which no serious human mortal can ignore. Social and
spiritual processes were at work in the ancient past which are denied by
modern godless minds. A living record exists in the languages and names
of the world which has preserved evidence of a great and respectful past
of mankind. When this linguistic evidence is correlated with folk tales,
myths, and legends we gain clearer insight into those days of long ago.
I cannot pretend to scholarly expertise or
refined depth of study. Neither time nor scope permit an exhaustive treatment
in rigorous intellectual discipline. But common sense can help us perceive
the significance of the evidence. I hope the reader will suffer my scholarly
faults, and bear with me in the presentation of material which, at times,
may require close and detailed attention. I shall endeavor to make it interesting
As we enter into examination of the planetary
evidence we shall find that two major episodes conditioned our planetary
history, and the status of the world today. The first was a Semitic influence
prior to Adam. The second was a Semitic influence which came more directly
out of the migration of Hebrew tribes into the hinterlands of Europe. This
latter influence confusingly added to the earlier worldwide phenomenon,
but was limited to Europe and the Indo-European languages. The first was
from an original world administration, and the second from the descendants
Adam left his genetic imprint upon the white Caucasoid races, while the blood of Abraham helped to further uplift European people. Even though Adam and Eve failed spiritually they contributed genetically. I shall consider the evidence in this book.