OUR GREAT GRANDDADDY
The reader should keep in mind that I have not attempted an exhaustive
scholarly survey of myth, linguistic evidence, or historic data to support
my presentation. Rather I have illustrated the pervasive nature of an ancient
influence which can reasonably be attributed only to a high ranking personality
whose origins must be other than terrestrial. The evidence shows a pair
of beings who were godlike in attributes. Only the Hebrew tradition speaks
of this pair in earthly terms, but then as a special creation.
I have already mentioned how space was called the Deep Water by ancient
people. The Sumerian god Dumuzi had a more formal name: Dumuzi Abzu.
Near East scholars translate this as True Son of the Deep Water.
Adam came from the realms of space.
The views of ancient people on the structure of the universe can be
illustrated from ancient Mexico, as well as Sumeria.
In the Sumerian traditions the earth was surrounded by a vast hollow
space, completely enclosed by a vault. The exact nature of the vault cannot
be determined from the available Sumerian documents. Between the earth
and the vault was a substance they called lil, a word which meant
wind, breath or spirit. It was characterized by movement and expansion,
similar to modern scientific notions of an expanding universe. The Sumerian
word for heaven was "An;" that of the earth was "Ki." Completely surrounding
"An-Ki" was a boundless sea in which the universe was fixedTS.
This was the Great Sea, the Great Deep: Abzu.
Miguel Leon-Portilla presents the view of the ancient Mexican peopleMAW:
The surface of the earth is a great disc situated in the center of the
universe which extends horizontally and vertically. Around the earth is
a vast water which causes the world to be "entirely circled by the water
(cemanahuac)." The earth and its vast ring of water are divided into
four great quadrants or sectors which, opening out from the center of the
world, extend to where the water joins the heavens and receives the name
From these two examples we see that space was not conceived as an emptiness
by ancient people, but as a living, breathing substance. It was compared
to water, a Great Sea.
The notion of direction shows also that these views were not merely
of a flat earth, and a flat creation, but of spatial direction. In the
Mexican tradition the vast waters surrounding the earth were the "heavenly
waters." Beyond these heavenly waters were "nine celestial tiers"
which, together with the water encircling the earth, "form a kind of
vault furrowed with courses separated from each other by great celestial
According to the Mexican stories there was a dual god, the master of
two distinct faces, with attributes grouped in pairs:
She of the star-speckled skirt; He who illuminates all things. Mistress of our flesh; Lord of our flesh. She who sustains the earth; He who covers it with cotton.
These were the "supreme dual gods who dwell
beyond the nine heavenly beams."
These brief references suggest that Adam and
Eve may have been known to pre-Columbian Indians. The motifs of parenthood,
god of agriculture, earth mother, and divine origin are evident.
The idea of Adam and Eve coming from heaven
has much support in the myths. But something went wrong. Derk Bodde makes
the following remarks on Chinese mythologyMAW:
The idea that Heaven and Earth were once joined together, thereby permitting free communication between men and the divine powers, but later became separated, is extremely widespread among cultures.
According to Bodde the Chinese believed that:
. . . the Lord on High . . . ordered the shamans Ch'mun and Li to sever communications between Heaven and Earth . . . so that there would be no descending and ascending of spirits and men between the two.
Mircea Eliade, in his Myth of the Eternal
. . . the myths of many people allude to a very distant epoch when men knew neither death nor toil nor suffering and had a bountiful supply of food merely for the taking. In those times the gods descended to earth and mingled with men; for their part, men could easily mount to heaven. As the result of a ritualistic fault, communications between heaven and earth were interrupted and the gods withdrew to the highest heaven. Since then men must work for their food and are no longer immortal.
In describing the several invasions of Ireland
by various people in the remote past one portion of the Irish folk tales
speak of the Tuatha de Danaan, "the people of the goddess Dana,"
and the Irish folk memory of Don and DonaCH:
This was not an historical invasion, but a crossing over from one form of being to another, variously described as having been accomplished in a ship and in a heavenly chariot.
. . . There was a divergence of opinion among the old writers as to whether the Tuatha came in ships or in clouds through the air.
. . . All other groups reached Ireland by ship, but the Tuatha came in dark clouds through the air and alighted on a mountain of Conmaicne Rein, and for three days they cast a darkness over the face of the sun.
In contrast to the other ancient people of
Ireland, the Tuatha:
. . . Stand out as a people of magic wonder, learned in all the arts and supreme masters of wizardry. Before coming to Ireland they had sojourned in the northern islands of the world, where they had acquired their incomparable esoteric knowledge.
This segment illustrates the use of familiar
concepts to assign origins to the Tuatha de Danaan. The north islands of
the world represent the north part of the heavens, just as other old people
assigned the gods to the north, Mt. Olympus of the Greeks, Mt. Manu of
the Egyptians, Mt. Zion of the Hebrews, and so on. In Sir James Fraser's
translation of Eriu he remarksE:
The learned men who recorded the old Irish traditions in the Middle Ages were embarrassed to know whether to regard the Tuatha as men, as demons, or as fallen gods.
The Rees brothers relate that in a story of
Tuan MacCairill in the Book of the Dun Cow, written about 1100 AD,
it is said that the learned men did not know whence the Tuatha had come,
but that "it seems likely to them that they came from heaven on account
of their intelligence and for the excellence of their knowledgeCH."
According to a text in a fifteenth century manuscript, they used to be
worshipped, while a poet writing about 1000 AD finds it necessary to say
that "though he enumerates them, he does not worship them."
These examples illustrate how the generations
venerated and preserved the memories of former ages. Only modern godless
people reject the value of this old world knowledge.
The Apostle Paul may have had some insight
into the mystery of Adam. He wrote in Rom 5:14 and I Cor 15:45, 47:
Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.
The first man Adam became a living being; the last Adam a life giving spirit . . . The first man was from the earth, a man of dust, the second man is from heaven.
Paul had several heavenly communications, II
Cor 12:8. In the foregoing remarks he distinguished between Adam and Jesus,
although he thought they were both of the same type, of divine origin.
The first was of the earth, a material being, while the other was of heaven,
a spiritual being.
Other traditions of Adam pervade Indo-European
culture. They became associated with the heavenly bodies and were assigned
responsibility for meteorological phenomena.
In the Hebrew don verb tabulation are
two words not yet discussed: diyen and diynah. We know them
as Diane and Dina. Diane was goddess of the moon for the Romans. She was
the equivalent of the Greek Artemis, who was the daughter of Zeus,
and the twin sister of Apollo, the messenger god. In the degenerate
myths she was also the goddess of the hunt and of women. She was a maiden
who demanded the strictest chastity from her worshippers.
This myth can be traced from the earliest days of the Greeks. A temple to the goddess in Ephesus in Asia Minor featured worship symbolic of fruitful nature conveying the connections of
this goddess with the cycles of nature. In this older memory the goddess parallels the association of Adam with agriculture, vegetation and the seasons.
The assignment of Adam and Eve to the heavenly
bodies is seen in the Russian Dennitsa, who takes the place of the
sun as the wife of Myesyyats, the male moon god,TK.
In Teutonic Europe Adam came down to us many ways in everyday common connections. Donar was an ancient warrior god, the god of thunder. Adam brought on the great cycles of weather with their erratic behavior; he was thought to be the god who created thunder. In Old High German his name was Thonar, an example of a "d" to "th" phonetic shift. He was known to the Anglo-Saxons as Thunar. With a slight twist of the tongue this name for the god became our word thunder. The same memory appears in Scandinavia and in Iceland, with a loss of the middle "n" as the god Thor. This memory was transmitted to modern times in Thor's Day, which we know every day of the week as Thursday. Adam's influence is pervasive and clings strongly in our western cultures.
This widespread influence is seen in other
The ancient Phrygians of Asia Minor had a god
whom the Greeks called Attis. Like Thammuz/Adonis he was a god of
fertility and vegetation. The name Attis, like Adonis, was
borrowed by the Greeks to designate the role of that ancient personality.
Attis is a formalized version
of the Greek atta, the childhood word for father. It is commonly found
throughout the regions of southeast Europe and the Near East. Some examples
are Sumerian adda, Hittite attas, Ugaritic addu, Turkish
ata, Hungarian aty, and so on. Attis had another name
in Phrygian familiar to all of us: Papas! His mother's name was
Nana finds a phonetic and semantic parallel with the Sumerian Inanna.
How did these names and titles originate?
We can trace them through that now familiar
process from a Semitic influence.
Adda is a childhood diminutive
for Adon, the Semitic word for Lord. A small child, showing great
respect for its father, might address him as Adon, but in familiar
terms he might also say adda. This form is found throughout Europe.
We see it in our native English where we took adda, repeated the
middle consonant by adding it to the front of the word, and know it today
as dadda, or daddy.
The Phrygian Papas also came about through
that same Semitic influence. Jesus used the phrase, "whoever says abba,
father . . ." With a phonetic shift of "b" to "p" Slavic countries used
this Hebrew word and knew it as appa, their childhood word for father.
In English we again took the middle consonant, added to the front, and
made it into pappa. Thus we see how the Phrygian form originated.
Although widely separated in time and geography, two different peoples
used the same honor for their fathers. We all inherited these familiar
titles from that father of all fathers, that great Daddy, Adam or
the great Lord of all the earth.
Strangely enough this linguistic curiosity
is not limited to titles or honors for the father; we find it also in words
The ancient Hebrew word for mother is am.
The Semitic childhood usage is amma. With our customary English
habit we took the middle consonant, added it to the front, and now have
Linguistic scholars believe that amma and mamma are merely
primitive sounds of babies calling for that warm presence which reassures
them and takes care of their needs. Other views suggest other possibilities.
Hebrew and closely allied tongues use simple
phonemes for close family relatives. Am for mother, ab for
father, ach (Oc) for brother, and acha for sister. This coincidence
of simple phonemes, all beginning with "a," does not seem accidental, fortuitous,
or the simple babble of babies. The patterns lead one to question whether
it was intelligently contrived, the invention of some language designer
in the remote past. The pervasive influence of the Don and Dona
names, the widespread Semitic/Hebrew forms we listed in Chapter 2, and
the evidence we have thus far covered, suggest far more than mere absorption
of linguistic elements from one culture to another with no more than an
accidental origin. Some dominant influence was at work all across the planet
and shows everywhere in these curious linguistic forms.
Another example is in ancient Maya vocabularies.
In some dialects the common word for father was tata, while the
words for mother were na, and mamaAMA
We can continue with other illustrations. The
title anna is found in the Canaanite Anath, Hittite Hannahanna,
a doublet, Iranian Anahita, Greek Anadyomenes, and so on.
It shows in the Sumerian Inanna. It may be the source of our English
Tabulation of the several forms shows the patterns
The reader may note that the contracted form
of amma is ma, used commonly everywhere. Curiously, when ma
is married with donna we have madonna. The same ma
married with dam becomes madam. However, with our usual scholarly
difficulty, ma is thought to come from the Italian mia, the
personal pronoun my. Such usage can be traced from the Italian through
the French to English. Scholars would assign this origin rather than the
more simple phoneme.
While the Don, Adom, Dumuzi, Thammuz, Adonis
names show linguistic connections with one another the names for Eve do
not. The different peoples remembered her differently, as the following
Khava is a Hebrew verb which means "to live."
Adam named his wife Khava (anglicized to Eve) because she was the mother
of life, Gen 3:20. With a v-to-w phonetic shift the original form would
be Khawa. In Chapter 2 we saw the widespread use of this Hebrew verb in
connection with water. The connection of Eve (Khawa) with water is as curious
as that of Adam on the Don river names and bodies of water.
The Khawa linguistic form may also be found
According to Chinese traditions their lunar
calendar, known as the ganzhi system, was invented by Danao.
He was a teacher and adviser to Huang Ti, the Great Yellow Lord,TCH.
In the euphemerized myths of China the gods are demoted to human emperors
and sages. From his descriptive attributes Huang Ti probably is the debased
memory of the Creator, while Danao, one of their memories of Adam,
becomes a mere adviser, but the one who started the Chinese reckoning of
While Danao shows some memory of Adam,
his mate is remembered also. In another story Nu-Kua is the sister
and consort of Fu- Hsi, the first of a famous line of ten emperors. (Note
that Nu-Kua is the wife-sister of Fu-Hsi). Fu-Hsi subdued the animals,
taught men to hunt and work, to make nets, and instructed them in other
domestic skills. On stone reliefs dating to approximately 150 AD Fu-Hsi
and Nu-Kua appear together. Their upper bodies are human but merge
below into intertwined serpents tails. He holds a carpenter's square in
his hand while she holds a compassMAW. The carpenter's square
and compass are symbols of the knowledge of science and mechanical training
which Adam and Eve brought to this planet.
The Chinese word for woman is Nu. Nu-Kua
is the Woman Kua. But Kua has the pronunciation of Kawa,
and this is the Hebrew Khawa, the Life-giver. Thus we have a concrete connection
between the Genesis name for Eve and a myth from China.
This linguistic form is also found in another
Oriental tradition but the linguistic connection are more tenuous.
Kuanyin (Kwanyin) is the name
for the gentle goddess beloved throughout the Orient for her understanding
and tenderness toward humanity. The name may derive from a marriage of
two Semitic words, khawana and ayin. Khawana is the
female imperative of Khawa -- "to live!" Ayin means "the
eye." If the connection is valid, and if Kuanyin is a marriage of
these two words, then Eve is the one who shows us life.
On these small pieces of evidence there is some suggestion Adam and Eve may have had an influence in the Orient.